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Spanish Imperialism over South America
Transcript of Spanish Imperialism over South America
resources on it were stolen
by the Spanish Conquistadors. http://www.shsu.eduhis_ncp/Cortes1.html Spain Portugal South
America Ever since Christopher Columbus's discovery of the New World in 1492, many countries and Empire’s rushed to explore and claim land and resources for themselves. Spanish Imperialism In
South America By : Jonalyne and Rachel Beginning with Christopher Columbus and continuing for nearly 350 years, Spain has conquered most of South America.
Their aim was to conquer and colonize, whether the Indigenous people agreed or not. Many native people’s toes got stepped on as Spain and and other countries competed for territory. Spain The Spanish brought armies and their sole aim was to rule and mercilessly destroy Native American Civilizations; as they believed they were superior to them . The most well known struggle between the Spanish and the Indigenous People’s is the fall of the Aztec Empire. After just three years of coming across their civilizations, the Spanish destroyed all that could be of their way of life. Spain then created a huge imperial system to exploit the land, labor, and mineral wealth of the New World. Spain used the wealth of the Americas to finance warfare in Europe. Indigenous Perspectives: Population: The population of the Indigenous people was negatively affected by the
Spanish Imperialism that was imposed on them .
Diseases were brought by the Spaniards that were new to the Natives and had no immunity to. Many indigenous died as a result of the new diseases; such as smallpox and measles.
The Indigenous were enslaved by the Spanish, and many died as a result of malnourishment, or being punished by the Spanish for not complying.
The Wars that broke out between the Spanish and the Indigenous resulted in many deaths for the Natives ; as the Spanish had whole armies and firepower behind them. Culture and Language Miscommunication between the Indigenous people and the Spaniards; to let them into the country and take their resources.
“.. I said everything to them I could to divert them from their idolatries,
and draw them to a knowledge of God our Lord..”
A letter from Hernando Cortes ( Leader of the Spanish Inquisition against the Aztecs) to Emperor Charles V ( Ruler of the Holy Roman Empire 1516 - 1556 ) Economic Well- Being: The Indigenous peoples were pressured by the Spanish to convert to Christianity. The Spanish affected the Indigenous' economic well-being negatively.
The Spanish imposed a paid tax by service labour for the Indigenous people. The Spanish felt they were superior and the natives owed them.
The Spanish also took huge amounts of natural resources of the land they claimed. The indigenous people were striped of all the gold, silver, and precious resources that the Spanish found valuable. The wealth of what belonged to the Indigenous went to the Crown of Spain.
The Economic well-being of the natives might flourish a bit more today, due to the tourism and amount of people involved in learning about the past. Indigenous cultures were negatively affected by the Spanish, but they were exposed to new technology and ideas. Political Autonomy For the indigenous peoples, there were no positive outcomes to Spanish
imperialism. They took all the land and resources they could, the natives had no independence whatsoever. Indigenous people were not
allowed to speak their own language and were treated as slaves to the Spanish. The culture of all the Indigenous
groups greatly diminished, or
completely died off; as in the case
of the Inca's losing all culture due to
Spanish takeover . Land and Resources An anonymous Aztec poet wrote:
How can we save our homes, my people
The Aztecs are deserting the city
The city is in flames and all
is darkness and destruction
Weep my people
Know that with these disasters
We have lost the Mexican nation
The water has turned bitter
Our food is bitter
These are the acts of the Giver of Life.
—From the Informantes Anónimos de Tlatelolco,
compiled in 1521. From the battles between the Indigenous and Spanish, lands were ruined and temples were abandoned or destroyed by the armies. After the fall of the Aztec, the conquistadors defeated the Mayans and Incas with the aid of military advantage and infectious diseases. Spanish Perspectives: Population Population of the Spanish wasn't really affected. They may have lost men in the armies they put up against indigenous people,but they always had men to replace them.
Men were willing to risk their life to see the new world and experience uncharted territory. Political Autonomy Spanish had gained its own independence in around 1492 with the completion of the Reconquista.
They were eager to explore and after Christopher Columbus set sail they came to the idea of Imperialism. Imperialism meaning extending one’s countries power and influence through military force.
The Spanish had organized armies and claimed all the land they could. They took the indigenous peoples freedom and enslaved many. Culture and Language: The Spanish, while exploring and conquering did force their language on the Indigenous, as well as what they believed to be one true religion; Christianity.
The culture of the Spanish was very wealthy and ethnocentric. The wealth they gained from all the places they controlled, and the resources and labor of plantations they had.
The Spanish only made alliances with natives if they agreed it would be in the best interest for both of them, usually to defeat a larger enemy of both sides; for example the indigenous tribes around the Aztecs made alliances with the Spanish to take out their common enemy, The Aztecs. Territory: Spanish wanted land, and the resources of the land they claimed their own.
During the Age of Exploration, the Spanish Crown owned land in many places; including Europe, the Americas, Africa, Asia, and Oceania. The discovery of the New World drove the Spanish to send out fleets of ships with conquistadors to rule and claim what the Spanish felt they were entitled to. The territory that Spain at one time owned is shown in the picture.
The territory of the Spanish was always changing everywhere, and as they explored South America they added many countries and their resources to the list. Economic Well-Being: Was greatly affected by the amount of resources they took for the land they claimed to be their own.
75% of the world’s found silver in the 16th century belonged to Spain ; and accounted for their wealth.
The Spanish didn't so much gain their wealth from the ruling and submitting territories, but from
the immense amounts of capital that gets invested in resources in those territories.
The Spanish knew what they wanted when they went to explore the New World, they wanted money and they found it through resources. Life for the Natives
was becoming worse because of the arrival of the Spanish. Land that belonged to them and their ancestors suddenly was taken by strangers. Primary Source for the Indigenous POV : This poem written by an anonymous Aztec poet shows the destruction of cultures and civilizations. The native people were negatively impacted by the Spanish in many ways. http://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Aztec_Civilization#Downfall Primary Source for the Spanish POV There lies Peru with its riches;
Here, Panama and its poverty.
Choose, each man, what best becomes a brave Castilian
-Francisco Pizzaro (Conquistador who led to the conquering of the Inca Empire) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spanish_conquest_of_the_Inca_Empire This quote from the Conquistador, who ruled Peru and the Indigenous Empires inside of the land, shows us that a Spanish man must take whatever suits him best. In the last line, he clearly states that a man must choose what best becomes him, as he is Spanish. This quote shows the Spanish conquered because they believed they had the right to; due to being of Spanish descent. Conclusion: The Spanish Imperialism affected the Indigenous people negatively. Families were killed , land was taken, resources stolen, and conformity of the Spanish ways was forced upon them. The Spanish Inquisition destroyed whole civilizations, such as the Aztecs and the Incas.
But without the arrival of the Spanish and the technology they brought, I don't believe our world would be as developed as it is today. The Spanish brought change, not all of it positive. But they helped bring developed ideas and inventions that changed the future of South America.
1700 1800 1900 1850 Argentina gained back their own independence:
July 9th 1816. Bibliography http://www.sahistory.org.za/topic/america-spanish-conquest
Bolivia earned back independence:
August 6, 1822 Brazil got its independence :
Sept 7, 1822 Paraguay came independent on :
May 15th, 1811 Peru gained independence
July 28th: 1821
Colombia gained back independence:
August 7th, 1819 1600 1500 1450 1492 : Christopher Columbus sails off and
finds the New World. Timeline of When the Imperialized Countries
Gained back Independence