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The Trainspotters Guide to the Railway

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by

Zyanya Flores

on 31 January 2014

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Transcript of The Trainspotters Guide to the Railway

Basics of Railways
Everything you need to know about railways
(...and didn't realise you already knew)

Trains run on rails
Trains don't have rear windows
Trains don't have steering wheels
Trains have a beginning and an end
Trains carry people or goods
Some trains are faster than others
Wheel-rail interface is the size of your thumbnail
Slippery when wet
Limiting gradients
Can't stop easily within the line-of-sight
On railways, cant helps a train steer around a curve, keeping the wheel flanges from touching the rails, minimizing friction and wear.
They are steered by the rails
Trains cannot go round corners, need curves and cant
They cant' overtake unless the track allows them
They take up space and are limited in where they can go
They can't swerve if something blocks their path
Signaling
Level crossings
Trees on the line (or leaves, or flood water, or cows, etc.)
They can't easily go backwards
Track direction is important
Both beginning and end need to be connected
Passenger trains target populations; freight trains avoid them
Many rail services try to do both, and then fail for both
People are stupid
So you need safety systems to protect them (doors)
People and goods need to have some menas of getting on/off the railway
First and last leg of journey has a big influence on success
A Ferrari behind a caravan on a single carriage can only go as fast as the caravan
Aerodynamics and vehicles and tunnels
Trains use energy
Need of systems to check that the train is in one piece and detect which part of a track is occupied by a train
Stopping Patterns:
All Stations
Skip-stop
Exspress
Electricity, Diesel, Gravity
Are they environmentally friendly?
Regenerative braking/flywheels
Safety
EMC/Stray Current
They run on rails
Time interval working
1840
Semaphore
1876
Abbots Ripton, Cambridgeshire
1889
The Regulation of Railways act
Semaphore signals
1923
Braking Distances (Level gradient)
Aspect signalling
Need signalling to separate trains
Position of semaphore signals
Aspect changes on passage of train
Development of a signalling system
Headway Time
Headway Distance
3 Aspect signalling
4 Aspect signalling
Points
Facing points
Trailing points
Parts of a set of points
Switch rails
Sole Plate
Lock bar
Stock Rails
Point machine
Rail clamp point lock operation
Track Circuits
"Fail-safe"
The relay de-energise when:
A train i son the track
A rail connection falls off
The power supply fails
A rail to rail bond falls
A rail breaks
Undetected vehicle
Axle counters
Not affected by AC traction
Do not require continuous electrical insulation between rails
No limitation in length
Do not require continues wheel-rail electrical conductivity
Expensive
Special procedures to be reset
Advantages
Disadvantages
Basic Axle counter operation
Electricity
33KV AC->750 V
400KV and 275KV AC
->25KV AC
Overhead Line Equipment
Third rail System
ERTMS
European Rail Management System
Movement Authorities
Automatic Train Protection
Interface with lineside interlockings
Transmits information between he track and the train
4 Levels
Full transcript