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Silver Nitrate and Copper Lab Report

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Justin Peralta

on 2 June 2014

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Transcript of Silver Nitrate and Copper Lab Report

The Procedure of the Experiment: Day 1
Silver Nitrate and Copper Lab Report
Obtain a piece of copper wire about 20 cm long. Form the lower part in an elongated coil, and bend it to form a hook at the opposite end. Weigh the copper to the nearest 0.01 g and record the mass in the data table.
Step 1: The Copper Wire
Carefully weigh a clean, dry, 250 mL beaker to the nearest 0.01 g, and using a grease pencil, label it with your class period and group intials.
Step 2: The Beaker
Carefully measure out 150 mL of Silver Nitrate using a graduated cylinder, after reading the meniscus record the EXACT volume. Add the 150 mL of Silver Nitrate to the clean beaker.
Step 3: Silver Nitrate
The Procedure of the Experiment: Day 2
Carefully shake the silver from the copper coil into the beaker. Using distilled water, rise the coil and then allow it to dry. Weigh and record it's mass. Decant the solution (pour it off) into a waste beaker. Add 10 to 15 mL of distilled water to the silver then decant again. Repeat this wash and decant process about three times.
Step 1: Decant
Dry the silver in the beaker by placing it on a wire gauze and warming until the water is evaporated off. DO NOT USE STRONG FLAME! Heat and reheat until a consecutive mass in grams is obtained.
Step 2: Drying the Silver
Calculations
Purpose of the Experiment
The purpose of the experiment is to investigate mass to mole relationships in chemical reactions. As well as, to further develop an understanding of oxidation and reduction reactions.


Step 4: Set-up Experiment
Suspend the copper coil in the silver nitrate solution by hanging the hook over a glass stirring rod. Place the stirring rod on top of the beaker of silver nitrate. DO NOT let the coil touch the bottom of the beaker.
Observations
Two observations must be made about the reaction: one about the copper wire and one about the solution.
- The copper wire formed silver around it in less than an hour after submerging it. This silver looks somewhat furry and grey.
- The silver nitrate solution has experienced no changes, YET.
Data Table
1. Mass of copper coil before reaction .54 grams
2. Mass of copper coil after reaction .21 grams
3. Mass of copper used in the reaction .33 grams
4. Mass of beaker and dry silver 109.47 grams
5. Mass of empty beaker 108.56 grams
6. Mass of silver produced in reaction .91 grams
7. Moles of solid copper used in reaction .0051928 mol
8. Moles of solid silver produced in reaction .0084361 mol
Copper Calculations
1. Mass of copper coil before reaction .54 grams
2. Mass of copper after reaction .21 grams
3. Mass of copper used in reaction
.54 grams - .21 grams = .33 grams of copper used
7. Mole of solid copper used in reaction
.33 grams/ 63.55 grams (molar mass of copper) = .0051928 mol of copper used.
Silver Calculations
4. Mass of beaker and dry silver 109.47 grams
5. Mass of empty beaker 108. 56 grams
6. Mass of silver produced in reaction
109.47 grams - 108.56 grams = .91 grams
8. Moles of solid silver produced in reaction
.91 grams/ 107.87 grams (molar mass of silver) = .0084361 mol of silver
The Importance of These Calculations
The calculations allow us the see the outcome of the reactions on a numerical level. Without the calculations we wouldn't have been able to know the exact amount of copper lost or the exact amount of silver gained. They also allow us to figure out the percent yield.
Percent Yield
1. Calculate the number of moles of Ag expected based upon the moles of Cu actually consumed
.33 grams/ 63.55 * 2/1 = .010386 (theoretical yield)
2. Calculate percent yeild
.oo8436 (actual yield)/ .010386 (theoretical yield) * 100 =
81.23%

Conclusion
This experiment was meant to show the mass to mole relationships in chemical reactions and help us understand oxidation and reduction reactions. The experiment fulfilled its purpose because it showed how the copper and silver atoms were altered due to oxidation and reduction. Single replacement was evident in this experiment because copper "kicked silver to the curb" and took its place with nitrate; giving us solid silver.
Safety First!
What's the most important part of performing a lab? Is it the graduated cylinder? No, its safety. In this particular lab the safety equipment needed are goggles and aprons. The goggles are necessary because we are working with liquids over a Bunsen burner. The aprons are necessary because we are working with harmful chemicals (silver nitrate).

Simone was not in the picture because she was taking it. She was, however, also wearing her goggles and apron.
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