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Trends in eating patterns
Transcript of Trends in eating patterns
What this presentation will cover:
• What is a trend in eating?
• Why should we examine these trends within a public health context?
• Past trends in eating patterns
• Current food trends
• Group task
• Summary of the presentation
• References and further reading
What is a trend in eating?
• Factors influencing the food choice of a population group (DAFF, 2013)
• Food culture (Singer, 2012)
• Dietary habits and patterns (Hardy et al., 2011)
• The determinants of food choice (EUFIC, 2005)
• Personal style and preferences represented via food choice (EUFIC, 2005)
Why should we examine these trends within a public health context?
To understand positive and negative consequences of trends
Understand the various policies that have been implemented
Learn from past mistakes
Understand major influences
Increase general health outcomes
Educate the population and future generations
To adjust poor eating habits
Past trends in eating patterns:
What food trends of the past can you think of?
Current trends in eating patterns:
What current food trends can you think of?
Our aim: to educate heath and home economics teachers about some of the past and current trends surrounding eating patterns and to outline the major pros and cons of these population trends as a public health issue. We hope that in educating you, you will then be able to educate your students about this issue and make them aware of the health consequences that dieting trends can cause.
Group task - trends timeline:
What food trends do you predict for the future?
What influences a food trend?
In groups of two or thee, review your scenario or picture and place yourselves on the timeline according to the decade in which you believe your trend was introduced or became popular.
McDonalds Gets Grilled
EUFIC drivers for eating
The following categories can be used to determine food choice:
• Biological: hunger, appetite, and taste
• Economic: cost, income, availability
• Physical: access, education, skills (e.g. cooking) and time
• Social: culture, family, peers and meal patterns
• Psychological: mood, stress and guilt
• Attitudes, beliefs and knowledge about food
“The key driver for eating is of course hunger, but what we choose to eat is not determined solely by physiological or nutritional needs” (EUFIC, 2005).
Past trends in eating patterns:
Past trends in eating patterns:
• Prior to 1790’s: hunter-gatherer - native plants, animals, water
• Determined by geography, season and the quantity and quality of food.
• 1790’s: european influence – potatoes, bread, tea, sugar, meat and milk
• Agriculture and farming practices meant that meat was readily available and cheap
• 1850’s: gold rush – introduced dairy, wheat, sugar and fruit to the food industry
• 1890’s: rail transport – a rise in food processing and exporting
• Cheap productions of white flour – Arnott’s, Rosella and Fosters
• Gas stoves and ice chests influenced food selection, preparation and lifestyle change
• 1920’s: refrigerators in most homes – food preservation
• Typical groceries – flour, sugar, rice, sago, tea, tomato soup, canned spaghetti and baked beans
• 1930’s: the great depression – rabbit, bread and dripping (animal
fat) or bread with a small amount of milk and sugar, potatoes
• 1940’s: butter, flour, sugar and meat were rationed
• Frozen vegetables introduced
• Migration boom led to an embrace of multicultural foods
• 1950’s: Italian restaurants, the Chiko roll
• A strong emphasis on the evening meal – women were encouraged
to stay at home as a housewife
• Meat (lamb or beef) and at least three vegetables for dinner and
custard with canned fruit for desert
• Meats from the butcher, fruit/vegetables from the greengrocer and
bread from the baker
• 1960’s: Coles began in Melbourne, offering all groceries in one place
• Television marketing influenced trends
• Microwaves used in many restaurants (in 50% of homes by 1989, 77%
• KFC began the “fast food revolution”, followed by McDonalds
• 1980’s: popular to use new and creative ingredients, mixing sweet
with savoury, plastic garnishing
• The evening meal became less formal as women joined the workforce
• Convenience meals became popular (microwaved or frozen)
• A rise in “dining out”, European and Asian cuisine became popular
• Food nutrition and health became important – “low fat”, “high calcium”, “high protein”, disease prevention
• The healthy eating pyramid and the heart foundation tick
• 1990’s: hospitalisation for food allergies increase – sees mandatory labelling on packaging
• A focus on the fertilisers and pesticides used in farming, GM food
• “Coffee culture” and energy drinks became popular
• 2000’s: technological advances made mass producing easier, cheaper and more reliable
• Less hours spend on food preparation, more reliant on convenience foods
• The cooking show phenomenon – marketing and product promotion
• Popular trends included sushi, wonder juices, cupcakes and
Fresh and new, demand for transparency, authenticity and greater nutritional value
‘The cooking show phenomenon’ offers “advice and information that go beyond food and recipe basics”
A focus on healthy eating leading to greater portion control
Moving away from processed food and snacks towards less-processed, nutritionally rich whole foods
Carbonated soft drink is now seen as an indulgence than an everyday drink
Animal products labelled for ethical considerations - cruelty and hormone free, organically fed and humanely treated
Products are being labelled “GMO free” (genetically modified) and “organic”
Sustainable packaging with minimal environmental impact • No longer influenced by the seasons (globalisation
Gourmet/premium labelling seen as more appealing
“Foodstragram” – photographing meals to show friends (healthy breakfast, cooking, favourite restaurants)
(Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry, 2013)
Here to stay, will it change or is it just a phase?
• The media
• Friends and family
• Taste preferences, allergies, intolerance
• Illnesses, disability
• Peer pressure
What food and food labelling policies can you think of?
(Australia New Zealand Food Standards Code, 2013)
• It is important to be aware of the influences of food trends
• Public policies and education can influence food choice
• The role of government, education, marketing and media and
• In order to understand food choice we must look back to the past influences of food choice and how we got to where we are today
• Some of the current trends that are popular today
• Possibilities for the future
• A range of teaching strategies that could be used within your
Reality cooking shows
Ready made/convenience meals
Australia New Zealand Food Standards Code. (2013). Australia New Zealand food standards code – standard 1.2.7 – nutrition, health and related claims. Retrieved from http://www.comlaw.gov.au/Details/F2013L00054
Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry. (2013). Australian good statistics 2011-12. Retrieved from http://www.daff.gov.au/agriculture-food/food/publications/afs/australian-food-statistics-2011-12
Drewnowski, A., Popkin, B. (1997). the Nutrition Transition. Journal of Nutrition Australia. 55(2). 31-43
European Food Information Council. (2005). The determinants of food. Retrieved from http://www.eufic.org/article/en/expid/review-food-choice/
Hardy, L., King, L., Espinel, P., Okely, A., Bauman, A. Methods of the NSW schools physical activity and nutrition survey 2010. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 14(5), 390-396. Retrieved from http://0-search.proquest.com.alpha2.latrobe.edu.au/docview/896739177?accountid=12001
Kearny, J. (2010). Food consumption trends and Drivers. Journal of Biological Sciences Dublin. 365, p. 2793-2807
McMichael, A., Powels, J., Butler, C., Uauy, R. (2007). Food Livestock Production, Energy, Climate Change and Health. The Lancet. 370. Pg. 253-1261
National health and Medical Research Council. (2013). Your Health. Australia. Retrieved from: http://www.nhmrc.gov.au/your-health/obesity-and-overweight
Plus 7. (2013). McDonalds Gets Grilled [Video]. Retrieved from http://au.tv.yahoo.com/plus7/mcdonalds-gets-grilled/
Singer, C. (2012). 2012 Food Trends: health, wellbeing and wild crafting. Retrieved from https://www.acg.org/assets/10/documents/McGladrey_FoodTrends2012.pdf
YouTube. (2009). Supersize me in 7 mins: how too much of McDonalds will make you feel.