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Copy of institution impact of spanish rule
Transcript of Copy of institution impact of spanish rule
In 1565 - Spaniards settled permanently in the Philippines and found out that Filipinos are living in either linear or nucleated barangays.
-First tasks that was imposed on the missionaries and encomenderos was to collect all the scattered Filipinos together in a reduccion.
Early as 1580 – Franciscans proceeded to establish Pueblos.
- All the new Christian converts were required o construct their house around the church and unbaptized were invited to do the same.
- The reduccion plan presented by Franciscan Fr. Juan de Plascencia was approved unanimously by missionaries of all the religious orders .
Reduccion - Resettlement
- Spaniards attempted to tame the reluctant Filipinos through Christian indoctrination.
- The Spaniards was civilizing to make the Filipinos law-abiding citizens of the Spanish crown.
- Precolonial barangays metamorphosed externally and internally.
I. Economic Institutions:
A. Taxation without Representation
-Income- generating mechanism were introduced buy the Spanish Colonial Gov’t in the Philippines consisting of direct and indirect taxes, monopolies of special crops and items.
- Mandala ( tagalog word)
- Annual enforced sale or requisitioning of goods, particularly of rice or coconut oil, in the case of tayabas
- Pampanga and tagalog regions (rice bowl of the Philippines)
- Personal identity paper, equivalent to the present Residence tax
- Everyone, whether Filipino or other nationalities, over eighteen years of age was required to pay.
- Special privileges of tax exemptions were granted to the descendants of the Filipino chiefly class who served in the Pacification campaigns conducted by the conquistadores
o College and university students of Santo Tomas, San Jose, San Juan de Letran and San Carlos (Cebu)
• Buwis(tribute) may be paid in cash or kind, partly or wholly
- (1570) the tribute was fixed at eight reales
- It was raised into fifteen reales till the end of the Spanish period
- In mid-nineteenth century, the Filipinos were required to pay:
o Tribute of ten reales
o Diezmos prediales of one real
o Town community chest, one real
o Sanctorum tax for church support, Three reales
• Samboangan or donativo De Zamboanga
- Crush the Moro aids
- ½ real
- To shield the coastal areas of Bulacan ang Pampanga
- Falua (Camarines Sur, Cebu, Misamis and other littoral provinces)(
B. Polo y Servicio personal or Prestacion Personal
Polo actually is a corruption of the Tagalog pulong means “Meeting of persons and things” or “community labor”
- Drafted laborers (polistas) were either Filipino or Chinese male mestizos ranging from 16 to 60yrs old, who were obligated to give personal service to community projects like:
o Construction and repair of infrastructure
o Church construction
o Cutting logs in forest for Forty days until 1884
Negative effects of polo on the Filipino
o Upsetting of the village economy
o Forced separation from the Family
o Relocation o different places.
o Decimation of male population
C. Encomiendas: Royal and Private
- From the word encomendas, meaning “to entrust”
Two kinds of encomiendas:
o The Royal or Crown
o The private
- The former were lands reserved for the crown and included the principal towns and ports.
- Private encomiendas were granted to individuals who were either the kings protégés or men who served with merit.
- With profit motive in mind, Encomenderos arbitrarily increased the value and appraisal of products at different periods.
- Each encomendero collected according to his personal whim.
- Encomenderos sometimes seized “the entire quantity of his rice from the Filipino without leaving him a grain to eat. “
- Many Filipinos died starvation, during famines and drought due to scarcity of rice and they were forced to eat coconut and banana shoots.
D. The Manila-Acapulco Galleon trade(1565 – 1815)
• Acapulco-Galleon – running the only regular fleet service in the huge stretch of the Pacific Ocean for two hundred fifty years.
• Galleon trade – Benefited only a very small coterie of privileged Spaniards
o The Spanish Governor
o Members of the consulado usually insulares
o Spanish residents in Manila
• In theory, Galleon construction was not meant to conflict with planting and harvesting schedules.
• However, among the positive results of galleon trade were the intercultural exchanges between the Philippines and Americans.
route of The Manila-Acapulco Galleon trade
E. Royal Economic Society of Friends of the country (1780-ca. 1895)
- Jose the Basco Y Vargas represented the true example of Spain’s despotism illustrado.
- To form a society of learned and competent persons capable of producing useful ideas, he formally organized, in 1780, The Real Sociedal Econimica De Amigos Del Pais.
• Basco introduced the Plan Gen. Economico which included the income-generating monopolies of tobacco, areca, etc . . .
• Extolling the beneficial effects of exploiting the island’s natural resources
• The royal Economic Society of friends died temporarily in 1787 and revived in 1819 and was suspended briefly in 1820 due to Asiatic cholera epidemic. Resumed its activities in 1822, faded out in 1875, revived again in 1882
F. Royal Philippine Company (1785-1814)
- March 10, 1875, Charles II created the Royal Philippine Company with 25-year charter
• Uniting American and Asian Commerce.
- It devoted exclusive preference to cotton production and weaving, cultivation of black pepper.
G. Infrastructure, Telecommunication and Public Utilities Development
-Modern ways of telecommunications developed in the nineteenth century.
-Compania de los Tranvias de Filipinas was established in Manila in 1885 by Jacobo Zobel de Zangroniz and Adolfo Bayo.
-By 1892 there were five street car service lines connecting the primate city with the suburbs.
-The telephone in Manila began functioning since 1890, servicing initially 170 clients with its main office at Intramuros.
-1872 – First telegraph lines between Manila and Corregidor.
-1882 – Manila – Hong Kong overseas telegram was laid via cape Bolinao in Pangasinan.
- 1897 – First Interisland submarine cable linking manila top Iloilo, Bacolod and Cebu was laid by the Eastern Extension Australia and China Telegraph Company.
- 1814 – Public lighting system in Manila and suburbs using coconut Oil was considered by Ayuntamiento.
- 1880s – Use of Kerosene
• Kingke, French gas lamp was banned in Nipa Houses as a Fire Prevention.
• 1893 – Walled City and suburbs were already powered by electricity, with founding of La Electricista de Manila.
A. La Letra Con Sangre Entra (“Spare the Rod, Spoil the Child”)
• July 17, 1550 – earliest schools were in compliance with Charles V’s, which provided that Indios in all Spanish dominions were to be taught the conqueror’s Language.
• As part of conversion, the Spanish missionaries in the Philippines used children in the belief that they
• Would learn our alphabet
• Christian doctrine and customs
• Policies and transmit them in them town afterwards
the Colegio Maximo de San Ignacio
2. Girl’s Schools
First boarding school for Spanish girls in the Philippines
• 1591-1864 – Santa Potenciana
• 1632 – Santa Isabel, now considered the oldest schools for girls
- They were originally founded for the benefit of Orphan Spanish girls.
Beaterios – Called for the daughters of Upper Class Spaniards, established for young girls called beatas.
• 1684 – Beaterio dela compañia de Jesus
• 1719 – San Sebastian de Calumpang
• 1740 – Santa Rita de Pasig
• 1750 – Santa Rosa
Two of these beaterios were established to teach Spanish culture and values
III. Social Transformation
1849 – Adoption of Hispanic names decreed by Gov. Narciso Claveria
-Catalogo Alfabetico de Apellidos contained:
-With the conversion of the Filipinos, Fiestas honoring the saints were introduced.
-The scattered “indios” were enticed periodically to town proper by means of Fiestas during Holy week.
-Compadrazco – (Ritual co-parenthood) came with baptism, and marriages and further strengthened existing extended kinship relations.
•Established by Carlos March in 1883
418 599 - Origin of Filipino Surnames
IV. Cultural transformation
- Precolonial baybayin was supplanted by the Latin alphabet as part of the Hispanization of the Filipinos.
- The potent appendages of education were the printing press, books and libraries.
- The development from xylographic (San Gabriel: 1593) to more practical duplication by movable typography (Binondoc: 1604, devise copy) was in line with the desire to accelerate indoctrination.
- The three earliest books published at parian of Manila in 1593 by wood block printing
• Doctrina Christiana, en lengua española, y tagala
• Fr. Juan Cobo’s Wu-chi T’ien-chu cheng-chiao chen-chiuan shin-iu (A discussion of the real traditional propagation of the true religion)
• Doctrina Christiana en letra y lengua china
- Early missionaries facilitated Filipino conversion by using hispanic music.
- 1606 – A school of music in Lumbag taught not only the latest music bu also dances as fandango, seguidilla and jota.
V. Filipinos not totally Hispanized.
- Spain was not successful in completely Hispanizing the indios.
- “The Filipinos who in early times were governed by our true country before the coming of Spaniards” wrote by Andres Bonifacio “were living in great abundance and prosperity”
- By the end of Spanish rule, the transformation of Philippine Colony had created a blending of native and Spanish cultures.
- Thus, when the Filipinos passed to another colonial era it was the synthesis of foreign and native which more or less guided their behavior and response to the next century.
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