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science presentation forces and motion

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el sal

on 7 November 2012

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Transcript of science presentation forces and motion

By Elsie Salerno Forces of Nature, Motion, and Simple Machines Gravity keeps everything from drifting off into space. Gravity makes the planets move around the sun because the sun has the most mass. Gravity is the attraction between you and the earth. Gravity causes falling objects to speed up as they fall. Gravity causes the oceans` tides. But gravity has an unlimited range. Gravity is the weakest force. Electro-magnetism Electro-magnetism holds atoms and molecules in place in the body. Electro-magnetism causes electrons to repel each other. Electricity: result of electrons (negatively charged particles) moving For Example, lightning. Static Electricity:
can build up in one place. For example, a simple, parallel, or a series circuit. Current Electricity:
can move from one place to another. Magnetism Magnetic force is caused by a magnetic field of electrically charged particles that are moving around each other. A magnet is an object that exhibits a strong magnetic field and will attract materials like iron to it. Has one North pole Has one South pole Electro-magnetism is the combination of electricity and magnetism. Magnetism is the force of attraction or repulsion that acts at a distance. Attraction: Two magnetic objects whose opposite poles bring them closer together. Repulsion: Two magnetic objects whose same poles push them away from each other.
Is a force between two or more nucleons.
Binds protons and neutrons into atomic nuclei.
Releases energy used in nuclear power and nuclear weapons. The weak nuclear force It also provides heating for the earth. Weak nuclear force helps generate sunlight. The weak nuclear force is important for advanced medical diagnostics. The Nuclear force: The strong nuclear force The strongest force but it has the shortest range. Strong nuclear force holds the particles together in the nucleus. Positively charged Protons No charge Neutrons Motion Everything in the universe is moving all the time. Motion is any change in position of an object with respect to time. It is described in these terms:
time Sir Issac Newton An object is either at rest or it moves in a straight line with constant speed. Newton`s 1st Law of Motion:
Object`s motion cannot change unless acted upon by a force. Object's momentum is directly related to the object's mass and velocity. Newton`s Second Law of Motion:
The acceleration of an object is directly proportional to its mass. All forces exist in pairs. When one object exerts a force on another object, then the other object exerts a force on the first object. All forces are interactions between bodies or objects. COMPLEX machine= Two or more simple machines in one machine.
For example a car or bike Simple machine = mechanical device that changes direction or magnitude of a force. For example:
a scissors or a crowbar. Lever:
a stiff bar that rests on a support (fulcrum), which lifts or moves an object A lever amplifies input force to provide great output force, which provides leverage. Wheel and axle:
Is a wheel with a rod through it its center (axle) that lifts or moves the object. Pulley:
Uses wheels and a rope to raise, lower, or move an object. For example:
a ramp Inclined plane:
Is a slanting surface connecting to a lower or higher level For example:
a plow or a chisel. Wedge:
Is an object with at least one slanting side that ends in a sharp edge, which can lift or move an object. Screw:
Converts rotational motion to linear motion and to linear force But forces also cause the sun to shine, the ice to melt, and a plant to emerge from a seed. Summary:
We usually think of forces as moving things around, such as pulling a ball toward the ground or pushing a car up a hill. The attraction between objects. Gravity larger mass=more gravity The larger something is, the more gravity it has. The bigger the object and the closer you are to it, the stronger its pull This equation proved that mass and energy are interchangeable. Albert Einstein's most famous equation:
E=mc2 Energy equals mass times the square of the speed of light The first real proof of E=mc2 was the atomic bomb. Forces are agents of change in the universe! The End How much something weighs depends on how strongly gravity is pulling on it. So something will weigh less where the gravitational force on it is weaker (as on the Moon or in space, for example), even though its mass has not changed. At the end of this presentation, I will ask you to identify the three forces of nature in this picture. Does anyone know what the four forces of nature are? First Demonstration:

What do you think will fall faster? Second demonstration:

What do you think will happen when I put this balloon near the water? Does anyone know what a magnet is? Does anyone know a nuclear physicist? Maybe someone who works at Sandia Labs? Third demonstration:

Where do you think the ping pong ball will land? Newton's Third Law of Motion: Who can identify the three forces of nature in this picture?
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