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How are victims of domestic violence impacted in their emplo

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Christopher Hall

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Transcript of How are victims of domestic violence impacted in their emplo

"Understanding Economic Abuse in the Lives of Survivors". by Postmus, et al. 2012.
Impacts of DV on employment:
Longitudinal Issues: Concurrent and Long Term Impact of Intimate Partner Violence on Employment Stability
The purpose of this exploratory research is to use client and frontline worker perspectives to identify processes associated with the implementation of the Family Violence Option ( FVO; 42 U.S. Code 602).

This research used analysis of qualitative interviews with 10 battered welfare client and 15 frontline welfare workers to examine the implementation of the Family Violence Option (FVO) under welfare reform.

Method: This study is part of a larger effort to evaluate outcome related to welfare reform in Louisiana. All respondents were female. 10 consented to in
depth interview. All 10 were African American, the average
age was 22 years, participants had 2.9 children, participants
in this study resembled the members of the larger panel study.
Public Policy: Disjunctures for Women and Frontline Workers: Implementation of the Family Violence Option
Small 12 months mixed methods study with emphasis on qualitative methods. Used interviews to understand the relationship between availability of employment assistance and domestic violence shelters

Only 17% of those asking for employment help in domestic violence shelters received help vs. 75% of those in generalist shelter

2 out of 3 workers from the domestic violence shelters
advised that they did not support employment requests
explaining that their primary focus was on supporting
emotional needs, parenting classes and housing. They
discouraged employment because it would lessen
welfare assistance and increase housing costs
Cross-Cultural Analysis: Australian Shelter Approaches
Creating definitions is important to understanding methods of addressing the topic

Prior research on the topic has found victims reported:
16-59% - abuser prevented work
35-56% - harassed at work
55-85% - late/missed/left early
44-60% - reprimanded due to abuse
24-52% - job loss due to abuse
Introduction/Literature Review

Objectives

Method/Measures

Results- relationship, limitations


Overview of domestic violence and employment issues (Chris)

The impact of poverty (Philbert)

Substance abuse overlaps and help-seeking behavior (Desiree)

Public policy implications (Marllene)

Cross-cultural comparisons with Australian research (Donna)

Longitudinal studies and conclusions (Samantha)

Exploratory study with Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) survivors (n=120)

All participants were involved in a financial literacy program "Moving Ahead Through Financial Management"

Recruitment via fliers distributed by DV advocates at programs using the curriculum (15 programs in ten states)

Three interviews over 11 months (2008): focused
on economic abuse and economic exploitation

Survey interviews, one hour, paper or online, five
point Likert Scale on several topics
Methods of Postmus Study
Methods: During December 2000 and January 2001, interviews were conducted with 15 frontline workers who represented about 25 percent of the case management staff from two urban offices

Administrators selected frontline workers randomly who were in the agency prior to the changes mandated as a result of PRWORA.

Data Analysis: Transcripts and interviews were organized
and coded using the qualitative software program ATLAS

Categories arose from within the interview data, and a
coding typology was constructed that identified
information important to this study. Further analysis
identified contextual factors and processes
Public Policy: Family Violence Option Continued
How are victims of domestic violence impacted in their employment due to their experiences of abuse and/or violence?
Australian Shelter Options Continued
Study concludes that domestic violence interventions are not oriented to assisting in employment for victims in shelters, however this policy may be hurting the victims’ effort to escape future violence. Therefore it proposed helping those who ask for employment assistance as well as recommending the change of the agency’s internal policies to comply with these findings

Limitations of this study were due to its small size, limited Australian literature for review, limited geographical range and failure to follow-up with those who were seeking out and obtained employment.

Employment opportunities are adversely
affected for domestic violence victims in
Australia because of their crisis-oriented
policies
Conclusions: Definitions and Overview
Economic abuse as a control and exploitation tactic has a significant impact on DV victim's employment

Research on the topic could be improved with more extensive literature review

Studies that say that post-welfare reform has led to increases in work, but may miss impacts of IPV in these figures

Greater need to teach skills, provide supports, raise awareness of IPV

Second Australian Study
Second study is comparison of Australian domestic violence employment practices with those in the U.S. and U.K.

Small exploratory cross section study conducted through the use of literature review and qualitative interviews with workers from Adelaide

While there were few past Australian studies what exists confirms a link between domestic violence, poverty and homelessness and employment as a way out of poverty and homelessness.

Despite these findings and in comparison
to the U.S and U.K. practices and services,
Australian services are crisis-oriented
focusing on short term accommodations,
welfare assistance and emergency
support services.

Australian Comparisons Continued
This study references the McLaren study in which employment services at domestic violence shelters were a low priority.

North America places a strong emphasis on workforce participation regardless of parental status while workforce participation for Australian mothers is culture-based around gender caring responsibilities

Literature review and research demonstrated a case for domestic violence shelters to work with
employment agencies and to use North
American practices as a legitimate pathway
out of poverty.

Australian Shelter Issues Continued
Limitations of the study is due to its small sample size making it not generalizable. Empirical data was drawn from worker perceptions of successful work practices.

To improve this study need a larger sampling size which includes employed and unemployed women affected by domestic violence as a well as a larger sampling of practitioners and policymakers to improve validity


Public Policy: Family Violence Option Continued
An effort is required from the agency to let domestic violence clients know that this is an appropriate topic of discussion

Clients are to be given a form that describes their right to a “good cause” waiver if client meets requirements for the FVO. However, No written policy exists to direct workers on how to determine whether a waiver should be given to a client claiming abuse

The FVO has a lack of federal or state administrative oversight in its implementation causing frontline workers little institutional encouragement to engage with clients
concerning the complex issue of domestic
violence

Public Policy: Family Violence Option Continued
Several limitations included place and the time in which the research was conducted. It does not reflect the evolution of procedures as the agency continues to refine service delivery efforts.

Bias may have been presented in the recruitment process for the clients and the frontline workers. Clients were selected based on their self-report of abuse
Public Policy: Employment Protection
Problems to address:
People that was once identified as unemployable because of parenting, care giving responsibilities, disability, or ill health are now redefined as employable but have limitation of policies that redefine diverse women as employable

The employable consist of women that are unpaid, underpaid, work multiple jobs, seasonal and have lack of supported health benefits and victims of domestic violence.

Responding to the problem:
Employers should be one of the key community members in coordinated community action plan model, a model demonstrating how people can work collectively to support
domestic violence victims and their extended
families; to protect against inaction, biases, or
unawareness of established statutes.

Understanding public sector’s response to
domestic violence to domestic violence as a
workplace matter
Employment Protection Continued
Literature Review: Identified “employability-based approaches are not sufficient to the task of tackling unemployment, social exclusion, and economic inequality”.

Employability and Women's poverty is caused by labor market inequities, domestic circumstances, and welfare systems.

Women's health is effected by poverty, injuries and death inflicted by domestic violence; limiting access to health promoting health and resource leads to shame, stress and depression.

The federal Violence Against Women Act
(VAWA,1994) provides resources to advocates,
victims, prosecutors, and business.

There is no federal statue that protects
domestic violence victims from adverse
employer actions based on their victimization
without fear of retaliation or job loss.
Employment Protections Continued
The Family Violence Option (FVO, 1996) is a federal statute intended to protect domestic violence victims.

It only protects low-income women seeking public assistance, specifically Temporary Assistance For Needy Families (TANF,2008) and protection from PRWORA not employers.

Methods: Purposive or judgmental sample - The researcher produced a report to provide in-depth contextual information and relevant data on each research community.

70 women in the four communities for the
study. Qualitative data from 57 semi structured
one-on-one interviews and three focus
groups were collected.

Data analysis was conducted in the local
communities.

Employment Protections Continued
The researcher provided a descriptive coding framework which was used by the community researcher for coding and analysis. Atlas was used to manage and sort the date. The researcher combined both the inductive and descriptive coding  to write a report integrating the contextual information with the research finding. The researcher identified intersectional theory as the most appropriate theoretical lens for their work.

A interpretivist theoretical approach to qualitative research guided the research to collect facts and interpretation of the meaning of the various statutes and administrative regulations that protect the employment rights of domestic violence victims in 50 states.

Investigating the fullness of women's employability
through an intersectional analysis explicates the ways
gender, place , the local economy  and cultural identity
interact and influence to shape how women experience
employment and how these experiences influence
health and well-being. Overall, the intention is to
render experiences across the four communities and
to capture the overlaps.
Employment Protections Continued
There is currently no federal legislation that has been specifically enacted to protect the employment rights of domestic violence victims. Rather policies such as Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA, 1970), the Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA, 1993), and the Family Violence Option (FVO, 1996) have been used to protect the employment rights of domestic violence victims.  Protection has fallen to state policy makers and maybe a reason for the growing attention on this social problem among state policy makers. The results of the research implies that employed domestic violence victims in many states may be unaware of the employment protections available to them and may be still at risk of losing their jobs due to misinformation and policy maker can help fight existing stigmas. 

Adopting a intersectional framework linked gender, location, unpaid caregiving, and cultural expectations leading to threats of violence and discrimination to limit women's opportunities for well-paid employment. Current policies ignore women's reality assuming women are "employable" with no regard for their multiple roles and urban, rural an remote contest has a impact on their heath and well being. Employability-based approaches do not tackle systemic problems of  demand deficiency and job shortage and are insufficient to the task of tackling unemployment.  Shortage of affordable and regulated child care, focusing on employability ha negative consequences for many individual as well as social policy development. Neoconservative labor market policies that individualize systemic issues has firmly taken hold as governments urge "fiscal restraint" and "net zero mandates" The results has been women's deepening economic insecurity and deteriorating health and well being.
Victims of domestic violence may be unaware of employment protection due to factors including location, unpaid care giving and cultural expectations; these factors have intersected with each other causing threats violence and discrimination to limit women's opportunities for well paid employment; therefore it is need for policy makers to inform the public of existing policy such as the FMLA, FVO, and OSHA and to fight against stigma for victims to have access to assistance.

As long as the dominant emphases in welfare offices remain the reduction of the caseload, women’s safety concerns will be secondary. Federal, state and frontline accountability is needed in decisions related to implementing the FVO. Such changes would be a place to start in transforming the system to make it more responsive to battered women’s need

Longitudinal Effects of Domestic Violence on Employment and Welfare Outcomes
Literature review - Physical versus Psychological abuse

Hypotheses

Method

Results- relationship, limitations


Intimate Partner Violence and Welfare Participation: A Longitudinal Causal Analysis
Introduction/Literature Review

Hypotheses

Method/Measures

Results- relationship, limitations


IPV has a negative impact on the economic
capacity and mental health of victims

Victims with psychological stress need to be targeted for mental health interventions to improve their economic outlooks

Instability due to IPV is radically increased by depression

Need to develop more understanding on overlaps with race, ethnicity, MH, and employment issues

Poverty Overlaps
Abuse and poor physical and mental health have each been linked to unemployment, underemployment, chronic dependence on welfare, and lost workplace productivity (Danziger et al., 2000; Riger & Staggs, 2004; Rodriguez, Lasch, Chandra, & Lee, 2001).

Welfare regulations now require recipients to work in order to receive benefits. This requirement might exacerbate abuse, increase stress, or reduce access to health care because abusive men typically seek to keep women dependent by controlling and isolating them. Men might sabotage women’s attempts to become economically self-sufficient by using such tactics as refusing to provide transportation and child care, harassing women in the workplace, or inflicting visible bruises the night before a critical job interview (Brush, 2002; Raphael, 2002; Riger, Ahrens, & Blickenstaff, 2000). If women do get jobs, they may make more money than their partners, and such economic power differentials are linked to increased incidences of abuse (Fox, Benson, De Maris, & Van Wyk, 2002; Hotaling & Sugarman, 1990;
McClosky, 1996).

According to Tolman and Raphael (2000) there are high
documented lifetime rates of domestic violence among
poor women. Domestic violence has a direct bearing on
employment and poverty
Conclusions: Poverty
Conclusions: Substance
Abuse Overlaps
Conclusions:
Public Policy
Conclusion: Australian Comparisons
Employment opportunities are adversely affected for domestic violence victims experiencing abuse or violence since they seek out shelters which discourage employment

Adverse employment conditions for victims of DV are a result of cultural-based gender responsibility issues in addition to their psycho-social crisis-oriented protocol which emphasizes emotional support, welfare assistance and mother-child
bonding while discouraging employment.
Conclusion: Longitudinal Outlooks
Scales / Analysis of Postmus Study
Scale of Economic Abuse [SEA] (Adams, 2008): new scale at the time, measured two subscales - control and exploitation, added in sabotage

Modified version of the Abusive Behavior Index [ABI] (Shepard, Campbell, 1992): measures physical abuse and psychological abuse

Women's Employment Network [WEN] Economic Self-sufficiency Survey (Gowdy, Pearlmutter, 1993): measures how often there is an ability to accomplish financial tasks over time

Demographic information collected

Data analysis using SPSS, ordinary least
squares multiple regressions - looked to see if
SEA would predict levels of economic self-
sufficiency (controlling for demographics)
Results of Postmus Study
Of 120 participants, 94.2% experienced some economic abuse in current relationship (or last year of prior), 79% economic exploitation, 78% economic sabotage
Exploitation: Paying bills late (79%), spending $ needed for bills (69%)
Control: Needing to know how $ spent (88%), making decisions unilaterally (83%)
Sabotage: Doing things to stop her from working (68%), demanding she quit working (59%)

Participants who experienced physical/psychological abuse more frequently ALSO subject to monitoring and
restriction of economic resources

More frequent physical/psychological abuse
led to increase in restrictions for acquiring
resources due to limiting opportunities for
the victim/survivor
Discussion / Limitations of Postmus Study
Exploratory understanding of economic abuse and its relationship with other IPV - such overlapping tactics may propel survivors into poverty

Combinations of abuse and poverty may force victims/survivors to remain in abusive relationships and keep their focus on basic survival

Providing information on economic abuse and promoting economic justice will provide more understanding of abuser's control and can help advocates work with victims toward economic self-sufficiency

Significant difference in economic control regarding victim's educational level = education as a PROTECTIVE FACTOR

LIMITATIONS OF POSTMUS STUDY: All participants in a DV program, what promotes empowerment, issues of convenience sample, researchers missed similar research in their literature review
"Intimate Partner Violence, Social Support, and Employment in the Post-Welfare Reform Era" Staggs, et al (2007)
Family Violence Option
According to the Journal of Marriage and Family 67 (December 2005), women who experience domestic violence will be unable to fulfill work requirements or maintain stable employment. This is where the policy of Family Violence Option comes into play. It allows caseworkers or their supervisors to temporarily exempt women from work mandates and defer time limits (Raphael & Haennicke, 1999; Tolman & Raphael, 2000). The Family Violence Option has been implemented because of worries that a woman's partner may resent her growing economic independence and attempt to sabotage her labor force participation through emotional and physical coercion or, in the extreme, punish
her for usurping his role as household
provider (Lloyd, 1997; Riger, Ahrens, &
Blickenstaff, 2000)
Exchange Theory
This theory suggests that violence results from an imbalance of power within a relationship (Riger & Krieglstein, 2000; Tichenor, 1999).

Some social exchange scholars emphasize each partner's economic and symbolic control over household resources as the key to understanding gender relations (Goode, 1971; Kaukinen, 2004; McCloskey, 1996). From this perspective, domestic abuse occurs when a man loses his instrumental and symbolic role as a breadwinner. As women become more economically independent, men may resort to an available resource-namely, violence-to compensate both for their labor market difficulties and for their frustrations when women become chief breadwinners
(Fox, Benson, DeMaris, & Van Wyk, 2002;
Homung, McCullough, & Sugimoto, 1981;
Macmillan & Gartner, 1999; McCloskey).

If this hypothesis is true, then increasing
employment may increase the risk of abuse.
Bargain Theory
Influenced by bargaining theory in economics (Farmer & Tiefenthaler, 1997; Lundberg & Pollak, 1996), other social exchange scholars place greater emphasis on how partners use their power over resources to bargain and make differing predictions about the effects of employment. In this theoretical perspective, increasing a woman's economic resources empowers her to either bargain for a better situation for herself within the relationship or threaten to leave the relationship altogether and deprive the man of both her company and her financial contribution (England & Farkas, 1986; Farmer & Tiefenthaler). The emphasis on bargaining predicts that increasing employmen reduces a woman's risk of abuse.

For example, abusers can hinder labor force participation by turning off an alarm clock, inflicting bruises that mar a woman's appearance, undermining her self-confidence, or harassing her at her place of employment (Moe & Bell, 2004; Riger et al., 2000; Sable, Libbus, Huncke, & Anger, 1999; Tolman & Rosen, 2001).
In 1996, the redesign of welfare in the USA led to several shifts in public policy:
Five year lifetime limit of welfare benefits
Work requirements created by Temporary Assistance for Needy Familes (TANF)

Staggs, et al, decided to research if IPV acts as a barrier to employment for female welfare recipients. Some of the factors leading to this:
Women with a history of welfare have higher levels of victimization, and are less likely to be self-sufficient and may rely more on public assistance
IPV also directly associated with inadequate social supports

SOCIAL SUPPORT is the availability of support from interpersonal relationships:
EMOTIONAL: someone who talks to / encourages
INFORMATIONAL: provides info on resources
TANGIBLE: material aids (money, transportation)
Support can increase resiliency, coping strategies
Support may buffer the ability to get/keep jobs
Employment = increased social supports
Hypothesis and Expansion of Current Research
Staggs' Hypothesis: Higher levels of current IPV will predict less stable future employment and higher turnover; AND higher levels of social support will equal lower levels of future abuse, more stable employment, less turnover

Staggs speculates this research expands on the current available research at that time by:
An examination of AUTOREGRESSIVE effects of IPV, social support, and employment for victims (changes over time)
Uses longitudinal data to examine that IPV van predict future social support and quality of social support can predict IPV
Examining if social support can mediate abuse/employment over time

The CURRENT STUDY done by Staggs:
Examines the relationship among IPV / social
supports / employment of low-income women
in Illinois by examining in three intervals over a
three year period (1999-2002)
Methods of Staggs Study
The research used the Illinois Families Study (IFS), a study by the state which took place over four years to examine the effects of welfare reform (Staggs' research was using a part of this overall state study)

Nine counties took part in this research, which contained 75% of the TANF caseload for the state (desire to generalize data to all counties) - stratified random sampling chose 1874 cases to be interviewed for the length of the study (due to rolling nature of TANF, 625 cases were randomly selected for each period of the interviews to avoid representation bias) - Staggs' study only used 1315 of the total 1874 cases

Participants were recruited by telephone or in person, and were given informed consent at the time of the first interview normally conducted at participant's home - each interview lasted approximately 70 minutes ($30 incentive per interview)

Interviews asked questions about the "prior month"
or the "past 12 months" for the first interview, and
all subsequent asked for information "since the last
interview"



Measures in Staggs' Study
Examined IPV using a multidimensional index of physical, emotional, and sexual abuse; social support measured preceived emotional / tangible support; employment measured status and turnover

"Human capital" control variables included years of education, prior work history (points given on a scale of number of years), and work skills using an adapted nine-item scale by indicating how often they performed those skills regularly on a job they held at least a month

Each interview asked about employment by looking at how many different jobs were held in the prior year (or since last
interview), and employment stability was
measured by considering quantity of jobs

IPV measured using the Massachusetts
Mother's Survey - mapped a continuous index
of IPV by yes/no answers to various forms of
abuse / violence (paper questions vs in-person)
Methods - continued
Social support used "Three Case Study" by asking perceptions of levels of EMOTIONAL support - can you count on someone to:
Listen to your problems
Help you with small favors
Encourage you in meeting goals

TANGIBLE support measured with asking "enough," "too few," or "no one" to help lend money (rated 3-1)

Data was analyzed using paired-sample t tests to examine the information

12 longitudinal hierarchical regressions to
examine autoregressive effects, impacts of
IPV, and impact of employment

Online software Medgraph-I was used to test
mediation (Jose, 2003)
HWC 511: Research Presentation by Philbert Badasingh, Christopher Hall, Marllene Lopez, Samantha Myers, Donna Penczak, Desiree Reese
Results from Stagg Research
Significant changes - SOCIAL SUPPORT increased (10.18 to 10.54); IPV increased (.18 to .34); TURNOVER decreased (.09 to .07); EMPLOYMENT did not significantly change (45.97% to 47.55%)

The interviews and research methods revealed:
Younger women had greater social supports than older women
Higher job skills = increased employment stability & higher turnover
Past exp. with IPV = less social support in W2, increased IPV in W3
Higher W2 IPV = higher W3 IPV
More W2 social support = more in W3
Less stable emp. in W2/W1 = less W3
More turnover W1/W2 = more W3
More W1 IPV = less social support and
less stable employment
More social support W1 = more stable
employment

Discussion / Limitations for Stagg Research
In immediate post-welfare reform, women experienced increases in IPV and social support, and a decrease in job turnover

The research mirrors national studies that more poor women are working in post-welfare reform, however increases in IPV from W1 to W2 and W3 may signal trends in victims experiencing more abuse (although could be attributed to change in data collection from verbal to written)

Increased job skills = increased turnover could be an artifact: more job skills = more likelihood of working, therefore more likely to change to better jobs

Prior experience of IPV increases risk for future IPV

Hypothesis confirmed: IPV at W1 predicts less employment stability at W3

Partially confirmed: social support's influence on IPV / employment

Not confirmed: no evidence current employment = future social supports

Research suggests a delay in full effects of IPV on employment of up to two years
Footnotes:
1. Postmus, J. L., Plummer, S., McMahon, S., Murshid, N. S., & Kim, M. S. (2012). Understanding economic abuse in the lives of survivors.
Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 27(3), 411-430. DOI: 10.1177/0886260511421669.

2. Staggs, S. L., Long, S. M., Mason, G. E., Krishnan, S., & Riger, S. (2007). Intimate partner violence, social support, and employment in
the post-welfare reform era. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 22(3), 345-367. DOI: 10.1177/0886260506295388.

3. Gibson-Davis, C., Magnuson, K., Gennetian, L. A., & DUNCAN, G. J. (2005). Employment and the risk of domestic abuse among low-
income women. Journal of Marriage & Family, 67(5), 1149-1168. DOI: 10.1111/j.1741-3737.2005.00207.x.

4. Staggs, S. L., & Riger, S. (2005). Effects of intimate partner violence on low-income Women’s health and employment. American
Journal of Community Psychology, 36(1), 133-145. DOI: 10.1007/s10464-005-6238-1.

5. Purvin, D. M. (2007). At the Crossroads and in the Crosshairs: Social Welfare Policy and Low-Income Women's Vulnerability to
Domestic Violence. Social Problems, 54(2), 188-210. doi:10.1525/sp.2007.54.2.188

6. Kaukinen, C. E., Meyer, S., & Akers, C. (2013). Status compatibility and help-seeking behaviors among female intimate partner
violence victims. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 28(3), 577-601. DOI: 10.1177/0886260512455516.

7. Pilkinton, M. (2010). TANF recipients' barriers to employability: Substance abuse and domestic violence. Journal of Human Behavior
in theSocial Environment, 20(8), 1011-1023. DOI: 10.1080/10911359.2010.494940.

8. Lindhorst, T., & Padgett, J. D. (2005). Disjunctures for Women and Frontline Workers: Implementation of the Family Violence Option.
Social Service Review, 79(3), 405-430. doi:10.1086/430891

9. Reid, C., & Ledrew, R. A. (2013). The burden of being “Employable”: Underpaid and unpaid work and Women’s health. Affilia: Journal
of Women & Social Work, 28(1), 79-93. DOI: 10.1177/0886109913476944.

10. Swanberg, J. E., Ojha, M. U., & Macke, C. (2012). State employment protection statutes for victims of domestic violence: Public
Policy’s response to domestic violence as an employment matter. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 27(3), 587-619. DOI: 10.1177/0886260511421668.

11. McLaren, H. (2013). Domestic violence, housing and employment: Workers' perspectives on employment assistance in supported
accommodation. Australian Journal of Social Issues (Australian Social Policy Association), 48(4), 415-433.

12. Costello, M., Chung, D., & Carson, E. (2005). Exploring alternative pathways out of poverty: Making connections between domestic
violence and employment practices. Australian Journal of Social Issues (Australian Council of Social Service), 40(2), 253-267.

13. Lindhorst, T., Oxford, M., & Gillmore, M. R. (2007). Longitudinal effects of domestic violence on employment and welfare outcomes.
Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 22(7), 812-828.

14. Crowne, S. S., Juon, H., Ensminger, M., Burrell, L., McFarlane, E., & Duggan, A. (2011). Concurrent and long-term impact of intimate
partner violence on employment stability. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 26(6), 1282-1304. DOI: 10.1177/0886260510368160.

15. Cheng, T. C. (2012). Intimate Partner Violence and Welfare Participation: A Longitudinal Causal Analysis. Journal of Interpersonal
Violence, 28(4), 808-830. doi:0.1177/0886260512455863
The importance of economic resources for women leaving violent
relationships suggests that the effects of education, income, and
employment for women today are likely to be even more important in
help-seeking decisions.

Many victims of intimate partner violence do not engage formal sources in
dealing with the aftermath of victimization, rather, these victims employ
help-seeking strategies that rely primarily on their immediate social network,
including family and friends.

Given the complex role of economic factors in shaping women’s decision making,
policy makers need to find violence ending strategies that are consistent with the
psycho socioeconomic status of the victim.

The expansion of victim services including battered women’s shelters that focus on
emotional, economic and psychological needs of women and children leaving violent homes,
and the expansion of employment and educational programs for those women most likely to be dependent on marriage and mental health resources that reach out to women in the workforce.

The need to expand the provision of victim services to employed women who would appear to
be economic reliant and not needing economic resources but who would benefit from a variety
of other support services.

Women leaving violent relationships seek employment in a way to successfully navigate
their escape from an abusive household. They cannot accomplish this successfully if they do
not have the necessary support to maintain their sobriety.

The recent research on victims’ utilization of support sources is still limited by a
range of complex factors, including awareness, and fear, along with
economic factors.
Substance Abuse & DV Barriers
For many women, returning to the workforce is a difficult goal to reach because of substance abuse problems or domestic violence factors.

As there were no allowances in most states for women who were actively seeking recovery from substance use disorders, these individuals were penalized due to being unable to obtain or maintain employment (Kaplan, 2004; Woolis, Cyphers, & Roth, 2000).

Another social problem that restricts employability for women is domestic violence. Women in abusive relationships often ‘‘cycle’’ between living with abusive partners and living ‘‘on welfare’’ (Bell, 2003; Davis et al., 2000).

One study indicated that abused women were more likely to be
poly-substance users, to have difficulty with relationships, and
to experience comorbid mental health diagnoses than women
without violent experiences (Tuten et al.).

The ability of women with such difficulties to reach self-sufficiency
complicates efforts to achieve independence.
Substance Abuse and DV Barriers Continued
The study focused on the help-seeking behaviors of intimate partner violence victims and how these may be shaped by factors related to status (in)compatibilities, including marital dependency, marital quality/satisfaction, stress frustration in low income couples and the distribution of resource contribution in intimate couples.

Researchers found that status incompatibilities between partners that favor women increase the likelihood of seeking support in dealing with the impact of violence.

This study examined victims’ decisions to seek
help from a range of different sources,
including the police, medical practitioners,
social services, legal services/lawyers, family
members and friends. Education and
employment-related factors were examined
in relation to status (in)compatibilities between
intimate partners while other demographic
factors are used as victim-related control
variables.

Substance Abuse, DV, and Help Seeking
For multivariate analysis (MVA) is based on the statistical principle of multivariate statistics, involves observation and analysis of more than one statistical outcome variable at a time researchers conducted a series of binary logit models.

The contrast is between each type of help-seeking and not engaging in that help-seeking.

For example; family/friend help-seeking and not seeking help from a family member or friend.

Researchers present the findings for the main
effects and status compatibility variables tapping
the education, income, and employment
coefficients across the six equations representing
the help-seeking contrasts.

Status Compatibility in Intimate Partners
Feminists suggest that the increasing economic power of these women may present a challenge to masculinity and male superiority, which increases the risk of a violent “backlash” (Anderson, 1997; Hornung et al, 1981, Pridemore & Freilich, 2005; Riger & Krieglstein, 2000; Russell, 1975).

However, if these women experience intimate partner violence they have the resources to terminate the abusive relationship. Overall, relationships among these types of status parity couples are more likely to be terminated once marital conflict arises (Anderson, 1997; Nock, 2001).

These women can be more selective about their
choice of partner and their financial
independence allows them to terminate the
relationship when marital satisfaction erodes
(Rinelli, 2006).

This suggests an increased likelihood of
help-seeking where male and female partners
are of equal status.
Help Seeking and Status Compatibility
In this article researchers adopt a modified version of Kaukinen’s (2004) measures of status compatibility for employment, education, and income.

The survey respondents were asked about the various help-seeking strategies used in dealing with their experiences with intimate partner violence. Informal help-seeking includes help sought from family, friends, and neighbors.

Respondents also indicated whether the incident was brought to the attention of the police and if they themselves had called the police. Consistent with previous research, the majority of the women did not report their experiences with violence to the police (Bachman, 1995; Bachman & Coker, 1998; Gartner & Macmillan, 1995). Among the women in the survey used in our analyses, researchers found that 22% of physical assault victims reported their victimization to the police.

Although many victims do not seek assistance from the police, researchers found that alternative sources of social support are important to women dealing with the impact of violence, 69% of physical assault victims seeking help from a family member or friend.

The CGSS data do not support the ability to estimate a multivariate analysis of men’s help-seeking. This is therefore an area of research for future data collection efforts.
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Kimberle Crenshaw (1994) and others
strongly suggest that current social policies
addressing domestic violence are at best
ineffective and at worst may increase
vulnerability to abuse for the poor and minority women who are so disproportionately affected
and harmed by it (Das Dasgupta and Eng 2003). Therefore looking at these points we can definitely see that employment is affected by domestic violence especially in low income women and better social policies need to be put in place.
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