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The Early Modern Period, 1450-1750: The World Shrinks
Transcript of The Early Modern Period, 1450-1750: The World Shrinks
AP World History By Angela Mae Sajuela
Period 5 Chapter 16 The World Economy Portugal & Spain Unit 4 Global Interaction 1450-1750 4.1
4.3 AP World History - Theme Icons Environment: Human Migration & Patterns of Settlement
Environment: Human Demography, Disease, & Environmental Interaction
Cultures: Religion, Philosophy & Ideology
Cultures: Architecture, Art, Science, and Technology
Political: Structures, Forms of Rule, & Technology
Economic: Production, Labor Systems, Trade, & Technology
Social: Gender Roles, Organization, Race, & Education
Cross Cultural Interaction
Continuity and Change
Cause and Effect M -> $ C <->C 1 2 T T 1 2 > > Ev -> Ev 1 2 --> E AST Globalizing Networks of Communication and Exchange New Forms of Social Organization State Consolidation and Imperial Expansion Vasco Da Gama was a Portuguese captain who sailed for India in 1497. He established early Portuguese dominance in the Indian Ocean. Ferdinand Magellan was a Spanish captain who in 1519 initiated the first circumnavigation of the globe. He died during the voyage. He allowed Spain to claim Philippines. Vasco de Balboa was the first Spanish captain to begin settlement on the mainland of Mesoamerica in 1509. His initial settlement eventually led to conquest of Aztec and Inca empires by other captains. Important figures Francisco Pizarro led the conquest of Inca empire of Peru beginning in 1535. By 1540, most of Inca's possessions fell to the Spanish. European merchant fleets seized control of key international trading routes. Initial Spanish and Portuguese leadership was challenged by growing efforts from Britain, France, and Holland. Chapter 16 Key Points Europe's new maritime strength and new trade patterns generated wider changes, developing from the 1490s onward. One was the Colombian exchange of foods, diseases, and people. New global economic inequalities and new overseas empires also emerged. Europe developed a network of overseas colonies, particularly in the Americas but also in a few parts of Africa and Asia. By the 18th century, growing European inroads in India marked a decisive change in south Asia. The Dutch and British East India Companies were semiprivate companies, formed by pooling merchant capital and amassing great fortunes in the commerce in Asia. Even in Japan, where a firm isolationist policy was launched after 1600, Dutch traders secured special access to the port of Nagaski. The Dutch established a settlement called Cape Colony in 1652 the Cape of Good Hope to provide a coastal station for the Dutch sea-borne empire. Only after 1770 did the expanding settlements of the Dutch Boers directly conflict with the Bantu Farmer, opening a long battle for control over South Africa. British and French rival over control of India culminated in outright warfare in 1744 during the Seven Years War. Under the terms of the Treaty of Paris, which in 1763 settled the Seven Years War, France lost its colonies in North America, but regained its West Indian sugar islands. Prince Henry the Navigator directed explorations motivated by Christian missionary zeal, the excitement of discovery, and a thirst for wealth. Initiative for Atlantic exploration came from Portugal. Spanish quickly followed the Portuguese example. The extension of international interaction facilitated the spread of disease. -Native Americans and Polynesians lacked natural immunities to small pox and measles. They died in huge numbers. -> E European dominance spread to new areas during the 17th and 18th centuries. British and French merchants strengthened their positions as the Mughal empire began falling apart. C <->C 1 2 New food Crops and increased trade allowed population growth. Out of a search for profits, or by necessity, increasing numbers of peoples became part of the world economy. $ Deep drought, round- hulled ships were able to sail Atlantic waters. AST 16th century: The exploratory initiative passed from the Portuguese and Spanish to strong northern European states: England, Holland, and France. C <-> C 1 2 4.1 Western habits had been transplanted into a new setting.
- Married earlier, more children, displayed unusual concern for children. M --> 4.2 The Transformation of the West, Chapter 17 1450 - 1750 Important Figures of Chapter 17 Martin Luther was a German monk who initiated Protestant Reformation in 1517 by nailing 95 theses to the door of the Wittenburg church. He emphasized primacy of faith over works stresses in Catholic church. He accepted state control of church. Jean Calvin was a French Protestant who stressed the doctrine of predestination. He established the center of his group at Swiss canton of Geneva. He encouraged ideas of wider access to government. Copernicus was a Polish monk and astronomer that disproved the Hellenistic belief that the earth was at the center of the universe. John Locke was an English philosopher who argued that people could learn everything through senses and reason and that power of government came from the people, not the divine right of kings. He offered possibility of revolution to overthrow tyrants. Adam Smith established liberal economics. He argued that government should avoid regulation of economy in favor of the operation of market forces. Mary Wollstonecraft was an Enlightenment feminist thinker in England. She argued that new political rights should extend to women. Chapter 17 Key points The Renaissance emphasized new styles, and beliefs. Religious changes springing from the Protestant Reformation had an even wider impact. Trade and manufacturing expanded rapidly. A more commercial economy also spurred protest. A revolution in the nature and status of science occurred during the 17th century. The European state took on new forms and functions. This wave of change intensified after 1650. As Feudalism declined in Western Europe, new political forms gained ground. Both absolute and parliamentary monarchies emerged. New changes gained further ground in the 18th century. Most importantly, the Enlightenment expanded the range of intellectual innovation. The Northern Renaissance focused on France, the Low Countries, Germany, and England. It opened up after 1450. The reigning economic theory called Mercantilism, held that governments should promote the internal economy in order to improve tax revenues and limit imports from other nations. 4.1 The English civil wars produced a final political settlement in 1688, the so-called Glorious Revolution in which parliament won basic sovereignty over the king. The aftermath of the Scientific revolution spilled over into a new movement known as the Enlightenment. It centered particularly in France, but with adherents throughout the Western world. Humanism was the focus on mankind as the center of intellectual and artistic endeavors. The method of study that emphasized the superiority of classical forms over medieval styles, in particular the study of ancient languages. The European-style family originated in the 15th century among peasants and artisans of Western Europe, featuring late marriage age, emphasis on the nuclear family, and a large minority who never married. 4.2 The Catholic Reformation was the restatement of traditional Catholic beliefs in response to Protestant Reformation. It established councils that revived Catholic doctrine and refuted Protestant beliefs. Deism was a concept of God current during the Scientific Revolution. The role of divinity was to set natural laws in motion, it was not to regulate once process was begun. Enlightenment was the intellectual movement centered in France during the 18th century. It featured scientific advance , application of scientific methods to study of human society. Belief was that rational laws could describe social behavior. Renaissance creativity faded, then passed northward. T T 1 2 > > Northern humanists were more religious than their Italian counterpart. Women sometimes encountered new limits as Renaissance leaders touted men's public bravado over women's domestic roles. Printing was introduced in the 15th century. Books were distributed in greater quantities in the West which helped expand audience for Renaissance writers. AST Massive import of gold and silver from Spain's new colonies in Latin American forced prices up. The availability of more money, based on silver supply, generated this price rise. $ Blaming poor for moral failings, a new, tough attitude toward poverty took shape that has lasted to some extent to the present day. T T 1 2 > Scientific Revolution affected formal intellectual life, it also promoted changes in popular outlook. 4.1 New Schools of thought emerged in criminology and political science. AST Economic changes brought beginning of mass consumerism. Mass consumerism refers to the spread of deep interest in acquiring material goods and services spreading below elite levels, along with a growing economic capacity to afford some of these gods. While hints of mass consumerism can be found in several pre-modern societies, it developed most clearly, beginning in Western Europe, from the 18th century onward. 4.3 Western society became increasingly accustomed to change in commercial, cultural, and political affairs. Italian & Northern Renaissance Focused in France, Low Countries, Germany, and England. Cultural movement Focused in Italy Begun in 1400 Political movement Rested on urban vitality and expanding commerce Began after 1450 Intellectual movement Greater emphasis on religion Rebirth
"Renaissance" Italian Northern The Hellenistic belief that the earth is the center of the universe was disproved by Copernicus. Copernicus is usually taken as a quiet hero of Western science and traditions. He based his findings on mathematics, understanding that the Greek view of earth as central raised key problems in calculating planetary motions. Chapter 18 The Rise of Russia Important figures in Chapter 18 Ivan III was also known as Ivan the Great. He was the Prince of Duchy of Moscow. He claimed descent from Rurik, and was responsible for freeing Russia from Mongols after 1462. He took title of tsar or Caesar- equivalent of emperor. Ivan IV was also known as Ivan the Terrible. He confirmed power of tsarist autocracy by attacking authority of boyars (aristocrats). He continued policy of Russian expansion. He established contacts with western European commerce and culture. 4.3 Alexis Romanov was the Russian heir to the throne at the time of the Russian revolution and the youngest member of the royal family at the time of their execution. Peter I was also known as Peter the Great. He was the son of Alexis Romanov and ruled from 1689 to 1725. He continued growth of absolutism and conquest. He included more definite interest in changing selected aspects of economy and culture through imitation of western European models. 4.3 Catherine the Great was a German-born Russian tsarina in the 18th century. She ruled after assassination of her husband and gave appearance of enlightenment rule. She accepted Western cultural influence and maintained nobility as service aristocracy by granting them new power over peasantry. Chapter 18 Key Points Russia's early modern development emphasized territorial expansion and the strengthening of tsarist rule. Peter the Great led the first westernization effort in history. Tsarist policies encouraging westernization focused only on particular aspects of Western society and left out large segments of the Russian population. Russian serfdom constituted a distinctive social and economic system, its growing burdens sparked recurrent social protest. The social and economic system of relying on forced peasant labor promoted by the Russian government to increase control over commoners is known as serfdom. The title for a Russian monarch or emperor, such as Ivan III, is tsar. Under Ivan the Great, Russia was liberated from Central-East Asian Mongol rule by 1480. Peter the Great began a process of Westernization to improve some aspects of Russian military, economy, and culture through borrowing Western concepts. The dominant branch of Christianity in Russia is the Eastern Orthodox Church. Under the Ivans and the Romanovs, Russian's capital was Moscow but Peter the Great moved it to St. Petersburg. The Time of Troubles followed the death of Russian tsar Ivan IV without heir early in 17th century. The boyars attempted to use vacuum of power to reestablish their authority. It ended with selection of Michael Romanov as tsar in 1613. Old Believers were Russians who refused to accept the ecclesiastical reforms of Alexis Romanov in the 17th century. Many were exiled to Siberia or southern Russia, where they became part of Russian colonization. Partition of Poland was the division of Poland territory among Russia, Prussia, and Austria in 1772, 1793, and 1795. It eliminated Poland as an independent state. It was also part of expansion of Russian influence in eastern Europe. 4.3 Peter the Great continued past policies but added a new interest in changing the economy and culture through imitation of Western forms. -First Westernization effort in history. Catherine the Great used the Pugachev peasant rebellion as an excuse to extend central government authority. -She brought Enlightenment ideas to Russia. C <-> C 1 2 Before Mongol conquest, Russia's peasantry had been relatively free. Peasants labored on large estates to produce grain for sale to the West. $ Most peasants remained poor and illiterate. They also paid high taxes and performed extensive labor services in agriculture, mining, and manufacturing. Peter the Great's reforms increased trade, yet the nobility managed to prevent the emergence of a strong commercial class. Russia's social and economic system had strengths. It produced adequate revenue for the expanding empire, while also supporting the aristocracy and landlords. 4.3 It was a custom in upper-class marriage for the father of the bride to pass a small whip to the groom. This symbolized the transfer of male power over women. Peter encouraged upper-class women to wear Western-style clothing and attend public cultural events. Peter found support among women as a result. Changes were selective though, so it didn't involve ordinary people. Peter the Great, knowing that upper-class women had greater freedom in the West, abolished this practice. He also reduced a source of embarrassment among Westerners in Russia, who otherwise could easily point to uncivilized treatment of women. -Meaning serfs. Chapter 19 Early Latin America Important figures in Chapter 19 Bartolome de las Casas was a Dominican friar who supported peaceful conversion of the Native American population of the Spanish colonies. He opposed forced labor and advocated Indian rights. Hernan Cortes led an expedition of 600 to coast of Mexico in 1519. He was the conquistador responsible for defeat of Aztec empire. He also captured Tenochtitlan. Francisco Vazquez de Coronado was the leader of the Spanish expedition into northern frontier region of New Spain. He entered what is now the United States in search of mythical cities of gold. Charles III was a Spanish enlightened monarch who ruled from 1759 to 1788. He instituted fiscal, administrative and military reforms in Spain and its empire. Jose de Galvez was a Spanish minister of the West Indies and chief architect of colonial reform. He moved to eliminate Creoles from upper bureaucracy of the colonies, and created intend ants for the local government. Marquis of Pombal was the prime minister of Portugal from 1775 to 1776. He acted to strengthen royal authority in Brazil. He expelled Jesuits and enacted fiscal reforms and established monopoly companies to stimulate the colonial economy. 4.3
Chapter 19 Key Points The Spaniards and Portuguese came from societies long in contact with peoples of other faiths and cultures in which warfare and conquest were well established activities. American realities and the resistance of indigenous peoples modified these traditions, but by the 1570s, much of the Americas had been brought under Iberian control. To varying degrees, all indigenous societies suffered the effects of European conquest. Population loss was extreme in many areas. Spain worked and taxed the native peoples often disrupting their societies. Agriculture and mining were the basis of the Spanish colonial economy but they depended on Native Americans and Africans as laborers. Over this economy Spain built a bureaucratic empire in which the church was an essential element and a major cultural factor. In Brazil the Portuguese created the first great plantation colony of the Americas, growing sugar with the use of Native American and then African slaves. In the 18th century, the discovery of gold opened up the interior of Brazil to settlement and the expansion of slavery. The mixture of whites, Africans, and Indians created the basis of multiracial societies in which hierarchies of color, status, and occupation all operated. By the 18th century, the castas, people of mixed origin, began to increase rapidly and had become a major segmment of the population. Increasing attacks on the Iberian empires by foreign rivals led to the Bourbon reforms in Spanish America and the reforms in Spanish America and the reforms of Pombal in Brazil. These changes strengthened the two empires but also generated colonial unrest that eventually led to movements for independence. Mexico City was built by Spaniards on the ruins of Tenochtitlan as the capital of New Spain. The body of laws for the Indies was so large and varied that it took almost a century to complete the great law code, the Recopilacion. In the 16th century, the encomienda was gradually replaced by the Mita, a system of forced labor drafts. The Spanish scholar Juan Gines de Sepulveda argued that Indians were not fully human and thus enslaving them was acceptable. In New Granada, popular complaints against the government's control of tobacco and liquor led to the widespread Comunero Revolt of 1781. The Largest silver mine in the New World was called Potosi, In Bolivia. Hispaniola was the first island in the Caribbean settled by Spaniards. Settlement founded by Columbus on the second voyage to the New World. It was the Spanish base of operations for further discoveries in New World. Viceroyalties were two major divisions of Spanish colonies in New World. One based in Lima, the other in Mexico City. It was a direct representative of the king. Sociedad de castas was the American social system based on racial origins. Europeans or whites at the top, black slaves or Native Americans at the bottom, mixed races in the middle. The Council of the Indies was the body within the Castilian government that issued all laws and advised king on all matters dealing with the Spanish colonies of the New World. Spain and Portugal created empires in the Americas by conquest and settlement.
-Lands became Latin America. They were immediately drawn into a New World Economy, providing silver, gold, new crops, and other goods. C <-> C 1 2 To rule, Spain created administrative institutions: the govern ship, the treasury office, and the royal court of appeals staffed by professional magistrates. AST Spanish and Italian merchants began to import African slaves to work on the few sugar plantations that operated on the islands. The arrival of the Spanish women and the African slaves marked a shift from an area of conquest to one of settlement. 4.3 Conquest involved violence, domination, and theft. Many conquistadors argued that conquest was necessary to spread the gospel and that control of the Indian labor was essential for Spain's rule. Spanish migrants to America were 80% male, which led to a very mixed-race society, Encomienda gave land owners the right to force Native Americans to labor on their farms. Mita allowed owners to force natives to work in mines. Peninsulares -Full Europeans born in Spain Creoles -Full Europeans born in America Mestizos -Mixed Euros and Native American Mulattoes -Mixed Euros and Africans Full Indians and Full Africans Chapter 20 Africa and the Africans in the
Age of the Atlantic Slave Trade Important figures in Chapter 20 Osei Tutu was a member of the Oyoko clan of the Akan peoples in the Gold Coast region of Africa. He was responsible for creating unified Asante Empire in 1701. He utilized Western firearms. Usuman Dan Fodio was a studious and charismatic Muslim Fulani scholar. Shaka was a brilliant military tactician, who reformed the loose forces into regiments organized by lineage and age. Nzinga Mvemba was the king of Kongo south of the Zaire River from 1507 to 1543. He converted to Christianity and took title Alfonso I. Under Portuguese influence, he attempted to Christianize all of the kingdom. Chapter 20 Key Points Beginning in the 16th century the Atlantic Ocean became an "inland sea" between which the people, products and ideas of Europe, Africa, and the Americas constantly moved. Africans played an essential role in this process primarily but not exclusively through the slave trade. Early Portuguese contacts with the African coast. The slave trade expanded to meet the demand for labor in the new American colonies, and millions were exported in an organized commerce that involved both Europeans and Africans. The slave trade influenced African forms of servitude and the social and political development of African states. Newly powerful states emerged in west Africa; in the Sudan and east Africa, slavery also produced long-term effects. In southern Africa, a Dutch colony eventually brought Europeans into conflict with Africans, especially the southern Bantu-speaking peoples. One of these groups, the Zulu, created under Shaka a powerful chiefdom during the early 19th century in a process of expansion that affected the whole region. Despite African resistance to enslavement, the slave trade and the horrifying Middle Passage carried millions of Africans from their original homelands. In the Americas, especially in plantation colonies, they became a large segment of the population, and African cultures were adapted to new environments and conditions. The most important of the Portuguese trade forts along the east African coast was, El Mina, in the heart of the gold-producing region. The Spanish developed a complicated system in which a healthy, adult male slave was called "Indies Piece", while women and children were valued at fractions less. A purifying Sufi variant of Islam had an intense impact on the Fulani people, pastoralists who were spread across a broad area of the Western Sahara. Under the leadership of William Wilberforce, an abolitionist movement gained strength in Britain against its opponents made up of merchants and the "West Indies interests". Lesotho successfully resisted the Zulu example by combining Sotho and Nguni speakers and defended itself against Nguni armies. Triangular trade- Commerce linking Africa, the New World colonies, and Europe; slaves carried to America for sugar and tobacco transported to Europe. 4.1 Great Trek- Movement of Boer settlers in Cape colony of southern Africa to escape influence of British colonial government in 1834; led to settlement of regions north of Orange River and Natal. Mfecane - wars of 19th century in southern Africa; created by Zulu expansion under Shaka; revolutionized political organization of southern Africa. Middle Passage was the slave voyage from Africa to the Americas (16th-18th centuries). It was generally a traumatic experience for black slaves, although it failed to strip Africans of their culture. Chapter 21 The Muslim Empires Important figures in Chapter 21 Sail al-Din was an early 14th century Sufi mystic that began campaigns to purify Islam. He was the first member of the Safavid dynasty. Isma'il was a Sufi commander who conquered city of Tabriz in 1501. HE was the first Safavid to be proclaimed Shah or emperor. Abbas the Great was a Safavid ruler from 1587 to 1629. He extended Safavid domain to greatest extent. He created slave regiments based on captured Russians, who monopolized firearms within the Safavid armies. He incorporated Western military technology. Babur was the founder of the Mughal dynasty in India. He descended from Turkic warriors. He was the first to lead invasion of India in 1526, but died in 1530. Humayan was the son and successor of Babur. He was expelled from INdia in 1540, but restored Mughal rule by 1556. He died shortly thereafter. Akbar was the son and successor of Humayan. He oversaw building of military and administrative systems that became typical of Mughal rule in India. He pursued policy of cooperation with Hindu princes. He attempted to create new religion to bind Muslim and Hindu populations of India. Aurangzeb was a Mughal emperor who succeeded Shah Jajan known for his religious zealotry. Chapter 21 Key Points In the 13th and 14th centuries, the Ottomans built an empire in the eastern Mediterranean that rivaled the Abbasid imperium at its height. Though the Ottomans patterned much of their empire on the ideas and institutions of earlier Muslim civilizations, in warfare, architecture, and engineering they carried Islamic civilization to new levels. In the first years of the 16th century, the Safavids founded a dynasty that conquered what is now Iran. Restoring Persia (as it was then called) as a major center of political power and cultural creativity, they also established it as one of the strongest and most enduring centers of Shi'ism within the Islamic world. In the first centuries of Mughal rule in India, Islam reached the peak of its influence as a political and cultural force in south Asian history. Under the Mughal emperors, a blend of Hindu and Islamic civilizations produced some of the world's most sublime architecture and art. Akbar legally prohibited Sati, or immolation of Hindu women on husbands' funeral pyres. The victory of Mehmed I led to the reunification of the Ottoman Empire. Muslim and Hindu warriors who supported the Mughal dynasty were given villages as rewards. The Safavids arose from the stuggles of rival Turkic groups in the wake of Timurid invasions, espousing the Shi'a variant of Islam. Day-to-day administration in Ottoman Empire was carried out by large bureaucracy headed by a grand vizier. Akbar considered his new religion, the Din-i-llahi, as a key to reconciling Muslims and Hindus. Taj Mahal is the most famous architectural achievement of Mughal India. It was originally built as a manusoleum for the wife of Shah Jahan, Mumtaz Mahal. Muslim Empires Chapter 22 Asian Transitions in an Age of Global Change Important figures in Chapter 22 Fracis Xavier was a Spanish Jesuit missionary. He worked in India in 1540s among the outcaste and lower caste groups; made little headway among elites. Hongwu was the first Ming emperor in 1368. He was originally of peasant lineage. His original name was Zhu Yuanzhang. HE drove out Mongol influence, and restored the position of the scholar-gentry. Zheng He was an admiral. He was one of YUngle's most trusted subordinates; he led seven major expeditions overseas between 1405 and 1433, Toyotomi HIdeyoshi was a general under Nobunaga. He succeeded as leading military power in central Japan. He continued to break power of daimyos. he constructed a series of alliances that made him military master of Japan in 1590. Tokugawa Ieyasu was a vassal of Toyotomi. HE succeeded him as most powerful military figure in Japan. He granted title of shogun in 1603 and established Tokugawa shogunate. He established political unity in Japan. Chapter 22 Key Points In the centuries following Da Gama's voyage, most European enterprise in the Indian Ocean centered on efforts to find the most profitable ways to carry Asian products back to Europe. With the restoration of ethnic Chinese rule and the reunification of the country under the Ming dynasty(1368-1644), Chinese civilization enjoyed a new age of splendor. Renewed agrarian and commercial growth supported a population that was the largest of any center of civilization at the time, probably exceeding that of all western Europe. In the mid-16th century, the Japanese found leaders who had the military and diplomatic skills and ruthlessness needed to restore unity under a new Shogunate, the Tokugawa. By the early 1600s, with the potential threat from the Europeans looming ever larger, the Tokugawa shoguns succeeded in enveloping the islands in a state of isolation that lasted nearly two and a half centuries. In the Asian sea-trading network, China exported paper, porcelain and silk, while India sole cotton textiles and Arab areas sold glass, carpets, and tapestries. None of the Asian Peoples possessed oceangoing vessels as swift and maneuverable as the Portuguese caravels. In India, from the 1540s on, Francis Xavier and his coworkers brought initial Christian conversions in the tens of thousands. The Ming dynasty proved to be the last of a succession of Chinese imperial houses. The Spanish repeatedly failed to conquer Mindanao was because its rulers were Muslim and determined to resist Christian dominance. After the death of Nobunaga, his ablest general, Toyotomi Hideyoshi moved quickly to punish traitors.