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Rosa Parks, Montgomery Bus Boycott, and Freedom Riders

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Reagan Frederick

on 13 May 2015

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Transcript of Rosa Parks, Montgomery Bus Boycott, and Freedom Riders

Rosa Parks, Montgomery Bus Boycott, and Freedom Riders
Who is Rosa Parks?
- Rosa Parks was an African American Civil Rights activist who was considered by many as the " mother of the modern day civil rights movement"
- On December 1, 1955 Parks refused to gibe up her seat to a white male while riding a montgomery bus.
- When Rosa refused to give up her seat she was arrested.
- Later on Parks was fired for breaking the law and she moved to Detroit.
- According to Alabama law, at that time, white people sat in the front of the bus and the blacks sat in the back.
"No" Cont.
- If the whites had no where to sit, the blacks had to give up their seats.
What was her contribution to the Civil Rights movement?
- Rosa's action didn't go unnoticed. She changed how African Americans were treated in America.
- Rosa helped racial segregation end.
- Parks' action led to the montogomery boycott which lasted about a year.

What was her contribution to the Civil Rights movement? Cont
- In September 1996 President Clinton gave her the Medal of Freedom.
Montgomery Bus Boycott
The Montgomery bus boycott started four days after Rosa parks refused to give her seat to a white man on a bus in Montgomery. The boycott began by the blacks in Montgomery on the day of Parks court hearing and lasted 381 days.
Montgomery Bus Boycott Cont.
Approximately 40,000 African American bus riders boycotted the system. That afternoon, the city’s ministers and leaders met to discuss the possibility of extending the boycott into a long-term campaign. During this meeting the MIA (Montgomery Improvement Association) was formed, and King was elected president.
Montgomery Bus Boycott Cont.
That evening, at a mass meeting at Holt Street Baptist Church, the MIA voted to continue the boycott.The demands were not met, and Montgomery’s black residents stayed off the buses through 1956, despite efforts by city officials and white citizens to defeat the boycott.
Montgomery Bus Boycott Cont.
After the city began to penalize black taxi drivers for aiding the boycotters, the MIA organized a carpool.
Montgomery Bus Boycott Cont.
On 5 June 1956, the federal district court ruled in Browder v. Gayle that bus segregation was unconstitutional, and in November 1956 the U.S. Supreme Court affirmed Browder v. Gayle and struck down laws requiring segregated seating on public buses.
Montgomery Bus Boycott Cont.
The Supreme Court upheld the lower court’s ruling, and on 20 December 1956 King called for the end of the boycott; the community agreed. The next morning, he boarded an integrated bus with Ralph Abernathy, E. D. Nixon, and Glenn Smiley.
Freedom Riders
In 1961 CORE undertook a new tactic aimed at desegregating public transportation throughout the south. These tactics became know as the "Freedom Rides".
Freedom Riders Cont.
The first Freedom Ride took place on May 4, 1961 when 7 blacks and 6 whites left Washington, D.C., on two public buses bound for the Deep South. They intended to test the Supreme Court's ruling in Boynton v. Virginia (1960), which declared segregation in interstate bus & rail stations unconstitutional.
Freedom Riders Cont.
In the first few days, the riders encountered only minor hostility, but in the second week the riders were severely beaten. Outside Anniston, Alabama, one of their buses was burned, and in Birmingham several dozen whites attacked the riders only two blocks from the sheriff's office.
Freedom Riders Cont.
With the intervention of the U.S. Justice Department, most of CORE's Freedom Riders were evacuated from Birmingham, Alabama to New Orleans. John Lewis, a former seminary student who would later lead SNCC and become a US congressman, stayed in Birmingham.
Freedom Riders Cont.
CORE Leaders decided that letting violence end the trip would send the wrong signal to the country. They reinforced the pair of remaining riders with volunteers, and the trip continued. The group traveled from Birmingham to Montgomery without incident, but on their arrival in Montgomery
Freedom Riders Cont.
they were savagely attacked by a mob of more than 1,000 whites. The extreme violence and the indifference of local police prompted a national outcry of support for the riders, putting pressure on President Kennedy to end the violence.
Freedom Riders Cont.
The riders continued to Mississippi, where they endured further brutality and jail terms but generated more publicity and inspired dozens more Freedom Rides. By the end of the summer, the protests had spread to train stations and airports across the South, and in November,
Freedom Riders Cont.
the Interstate Commerce Commission issued rules prohibiting segregated transportation facilities.
Thank You!
By: Reagan Frederick, Abbi McCoy, and Tiara Syck
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