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The Wars of Religion: 1560s-1648

AP Euro

Kristin Palomares

on 10 November 2014

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Transcript of The Wars of Religion: 1560s-1648

Wars of Religion
Civil War In France
The Valois Family:
The Beginning Of The End
Henry II was the last powerful Valois
Three weak sons followed...
Francis II
Charles IX
Henry III
Catherine de Medici controlled the sons...
Was mother to the boys
Played both sides in the civil war
Developed a reputation for cruelty
Catherine de Medici
Francis II & His Wife, Mary Stuart
Became a tool of the Guise family
After many unsuccessful attempts on his life, he dies
Charles IX
Mother ruled as regent because he was only 13 when he became king
Extremely jealous of his brother Henri III
When the Huguenot Gaspard de Coligny came to court, Charles was persuaded to favor a Huguenot plan for intervention against the Spanish in the Netherlands
Alarmed his mother
She convinced him to authorize the massacre of protestants on St. Bartholomew's Day
Henri III
1st ran army against the Huguenots under his brother, King Charles IX
Was his Mother's favorite
She got him a position as ruler of Poland
After Charles died, he became king
Religious turmoil was still a problem
So, he gave concessions to the Huguenots
This angered the Catholics though
St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre
Gaspard de Coligny
Huguenot leader who supported a war in the Low Countries against Spain
Charles IX supported
Catherine de Medici
Feared Admiral Coligny's growing influence over her son
Approved of a plot that had the Roman Catholic House of Guise assassinate Coligny
The House of Guise agreed to the plot because they felt that Coligny was responsible for the murder of one of their own
Margaret Of France
Henry of Navarre
Marriage of Catherine's Daughter to the Huguenot brought a large part of the nobility to Paris For the Wedding
Catherine saw this as the perfect opportunity to assassinate all Huguenot leaders so she organized a plot
Coligny was the first killed and many more were thrown into the Seine river
To justify actions, Charles IX said there was a plot against his life
Revived hatred between Catholics and Protestants
August 24, 1572
Guise family led Catholics in the North
Bourbon family led Huguenots in The South
Henry IV Of France
Henry of Navarre
Ended Spanish interference in France
Converted to Catholicism
The interest of the state comes first before any religious considerations
"Paris is worth a mass"
Edict of Nantes
Granted religious rights to Huguenots
Did NOT grant religious freedom for all
Do you agree with the notion of "politique" that was exercised by Henry IV of France?
Why was Henry IV's choice important?
Catholic League
Civil War
Catherine started supporting the Bourbons
Henry of Navarre defeated the Catholic League and became Henry IV of France
France was left divided by religion
Royal power has weakened
Bourbon family replaced the Valois family
Effects of Civil War
The Thirty Years' War
Characteristics of The Thirty Years' War
The HRE was the battleground (including the Low Countries of Belgium, Netherlands, and Luxemburg)
In the beginning, it was the Catholics vs. the Protestants
In the end, it was Hapsburg power that was threatened
Resolved by the Treaty of Westphalia in 1648
Ferdinand II
Inherited Bohemia
The Bohemians hated him
Was Catholic
Refused to tolerate Protestant
Defenestration of Prague
May 1618
Incident of Bohemian resistance to Hapsburg authority
Roman Catholic officials in Bohemia closed Protestant chapels that were being constructed by citizens of local towns
This action violated the guarantees of religious liberty laid down in the Letter of Majesty
In response, those who violated the letter, were put on trial, found guilty, and thrown from the windows of council rooms
No one was seriously hurt
Spark of 30 Years' War
Bohemia named a new king, Frederick II
Ferdinand II (Catholic) becomes the HRE
Frederick II (Protestant) borrowed an army from Bavaria
Frederick lost his lands in the fighting
Ferdinand turns people Catholic
The rebellion in Bohemia inspired others
The Bohemian Phase
The Danish Phase
Ferdinand II tried to end all resistance
Tried to crush Protestant northern HRE
Albrecht Von Wallenstein
Ferdinand II hired to direct the army
He defeated the Protestants in the north
Edict of Restitution
Restored to Catholics all lands lost since 1552
Deprived all Protestants, except Lutherans, of their religious and political rights
German princes feared Ferdinand so he fired Wallenstein in effort to calm them
What role did the Edict of Restitution play in the Thirty Years' War?
Did the Edict of Restitution solve many problems or create more? Explain.
The Swedish Phase
The French Phase
France and Sweden now get involved
Both want to stop Hapsburg power
Sweden led the charge
France provided support
Gustavus Adolphus
Invaded the HRE
Ferdinand II brought back Wallenstein
Swedish advance was stopped
German princes still feared Ferdinand II
Wallenstein was assassinated to appease them
"All the wars of Europe are now blended into one"
France and Sweden switched roles
All countries in Europe now participated
This phase was the most destructive!
German towns decimated
Agriculture collapsed causing a famine
8 million died (1/3 of the population)
Caused massive inflation
Trade was crippled throughout Europe
Peace of Westphalia

Each Ger. prince became free from any kind of control by the HRE
The United Provinces (Dutch Netherlands) became officially independent but the southern part remained a Spain possession
Fr. received most of the Ger. speaking province of Alsace
Sweden got lands in No. Ger. on the Baltic and Black Sea coasts
Swtizerland became totally independent of the HRE (Swiss Confederation)
Sweden won a voice in the Diet of the HRE
Brandenburg got important territories on North Sea and in central Germany
Calvinists would have the same privileges as the Lutherans had in the Peace of Augsburg
The ruler of each state could determine its official religion, but (except in the hereditary lands of the Hapsburgs), he must permit freedom of private worship
Many Protestants felt betrayed
The Pope denounced it
Only merit was that it ended the fighting in a war that became intolerable
For the next few centuries, this war was blamed for everything that went wrong in Central Europe

Nobody Was Happy!
Was the Peace of Westphalia a good or bad thing? In other words, did it solve more problems then it caused?
Weakened Hapsburg states of Spain & Austria
Independence for German Princes
Recognition of Europe as a group of equal, independent states = diplomacy
Ended Religious Wars
Strengthened France by awarding it German territory

• French Civil War
• Guise
• Bourbon
• Huguenot
• Valois
• Henry II
• Francis II
• Charles IX
• Henry III
• Catherine de Medici
• St. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre
• Gaspard de Coligny
• Henry of Navarre/Henry IV
• Catholic League
• Protestant Union
• Politique
• Edict of Nantes

Taboo Review
• Thirty Years War
• The Bohemian Phase
• Ferdinand II
• Defenestration of Prague
• Letter of Majesty
• Frederick II
• The Danish Phase
• Wallenstein
• Edict of Restitution
• The Swedish Phase
• Adolphus
• The French Phase
• Peace of Westphalia

Taboo Review
Full transcript