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Chapter 6

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Kelsey Lee

on 15 June 2011

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Transcript of Chapter 6

James Douglas, Vancouver Island's new governor, encourage British settlement
British government wanted to recreate the English class system, where settlers were required to purchase land @1 euro per acre, with a minimum of 20 acres.
1849: The only settlers on the island were ex-HBC employees
They had already taken much of the best farmland in the colony British Attitudes Toward the Oregon Territory

discouraged settlement, for fear that it would disrupt the fur trade, or may undermine the HBC's trade monopoly
wanted to expand to the Fraser Valley
saw that this area was rich in resources
John McLoughlin sent settlers elsewhere to keep them out of HBC territory
McLoughlin also offered money and supplies to Americans arriving overland, but George Simpson (the governor of the new HBC) wanted to treat them harshly CHAPTER 6 British Columbia to 1896 The Oregon Territory 1826-1843 The Oregon Territory was a piece of land that both the Americans and British wanted to gain. It consisted of the land north of 42°N latitude, south of 54°40N latitude, and west of the Rocky Mountains to the Pacific Ocean. BY Kelsey Lee US Attitudes Toward the Oregon Territory

encouraged settlement
wanted to fulfill the manifest destiny (the US believed that they were destined to control all of North America)
-America's population was growing
rapidly
felt that more land meant more power
saw 2 good locations for settlement: north of the Columbia River, and along the Williamette River Similarities Between British and US Attitudes

they wanted to use the territory to their advantage
-politically
-economically
they didn't want to lose control of the area
they saw that the land would eventually become very prosperous George Simpson, the new governor of the Hudson's Bay Company, created a new HBC post on the north bank of the Columbia River.
He named this post "Fort Vancouver," and placed it under the direction of John McLoughlin
McLoughlin had an unsettling physical appearance
had white hair, smoldering eyes, and patched clothes
nonetheless, was a very fair and just man
to reduce American competition, he encourage Americans to stay out of HBC territory The HBC also had to contend with Russians on the Pacific Coast
in 1839, the HBC and Russians agreed that the Russians would cease operations south of 54*40' N
in exchange, the Russian posts in Alaska would get food from the HBC, via the "Beaver" (and HBC ship) 1841: George Simpson decides to close all coastal trading posts, as he realized that the fur trade was not expanding
McLoughlin was furious because all his hard work had been eliminated
When McLoughlin's son was killed in battle in 1842, his anger deepened and he created a hatred for the HBC and Simpson
promoted American settlement
Simpson was scared they would lose control of Oregon because of the rising American population
ordered James Douglas (the Chief at Fort Vancouver) to establish a new depot on Vancouver Island
McLoughlin retired 2 years late
became known as "the Father of Oregon" because of his kindness towards American settlers The Beaver John McLoughlin 1844-1856
The Colony of Vancouver Island 1844: Democratic president candidate James Polk ran a slogan "54*40' or fight"
this meant that the US claimed the Oregon Territory up to 54*40' N
won the election 1848: the British Government decided the Pacific Coast needed more official presence than the HBC
created the Crown colony of Vancouver Island
Britain gave the HBC a trade monopoly but had to sell land to British settlers who came to live there 1850: The colony began to diversify economically
found coal near Nanaimo
The Royal Navy established a naval base near Fort Victoria to recieve coal supplies
the Navy played a big role in the social life of Fort Victoria
Douglas encouraged social activities by was not impressed by the new upper class
felt shunnedby the newcomers 1856: A Legislative Assembly was created in the colony
complaints from ex-HBC employees that Van. Isle. was becoming a private club for British upperclassmen
Leg. Ass. could pass resolutions but couldn't enforce them, and they could grant money to the government 1845: Polk tried to negotiate with the Br. Gov. for the Oregon Territory
decided that the boundary would be extended along the 49th parallel to the Pacific Ocean
Vancouver Island would remain British but anything south of the 49th parallel became US territory Douglas worried the that immigrant population was tiny compared to the 30 000 aboriginal people
he had to negotiate with them to give up their land
the natives agreed to surrender their land but retain hunting and fishing rights
Later, the governments of BC, Canada and Britain acknowledged that the natives actually had title to this land 1866-1871
British Columbia & Confederation Mid-1860s: Gold was running out of the Cariboo Region (where many had come to look for riches)
people started to leave the region, and eventually, the colony Elected representatives in the colonies proposed a union between Vancouver Island and BC
felt it made economic sense
1866: Both Vancouver Island and BC had major debts, with BC owing over one million dollars.
Britain offices were for the union as they did not want to provide subsidies to keep the colonies operating August 6, 1866: British government officialy joined the two colonies as British Columbia
Governor Seymour (successor of James Douglas) became the governor
a Legislative Council was established with 23 members
However, this union didn't solve the economic problems that continued Elected reps. from the mainland favoured Confederation
they sent a series of resolutions to the gov. of Canada proposing that Canada be liable for BC's debt, and that the federal gov. build a railway to link them to the east across Canada
this was voted negative by the government Early 1871: Legislative Assembly met to vote on the status of Confederation
Governor Musgrave promised a fully elected Legislative Assembly after Confederation was achieved
Confederation was accepted when they were finally promised a responsible government
July 20, 1871: BC entered Confederation and officially joined Canada 1868-1870: Debating Confederation
there were 3 main groups that had opinions regarding Confederation
one strongly opposed, another strongly supported, and the last was a group of Victoria business people who favoured US annexation The group of Victoria business people that supported US annexation agreed with the confederationists that BC couldn't operate without being connected to a larger body
however, they believed BC was too far from the coastline to be relevant to BC
also believed that the US would help them economically, and that immigration would flow easier from the US to BC instead of from Canada
Later, they circulated a petition but only collected 125 out of the 3000 possible signatures
proved that annexation was not a popular concept 1871- 1885
The CPR 1881- 1885
The Chinese in BC A few years after the California Gold Rush of the early 1850s, many Chinese people moved to BC during the Cariboo Gold Rush
they faced much prejudice and discrimination
they decided to go to the areas that had already been worked to look for gold, as they felt they could acquire nothing in BC 1883: Majority of the gold miners in BC were Chinese
some opened stores and restaurants in mining towns
others operated vegetable farms
some worked for wealthy white families 1881: CPR faced a labour shortage for the construction of the BC section of the railway
1881-1885: CPR hired many Chinese labourers, and more than 17 000 came to work
The Chinese were treated rather unfairly
paid $1/day, half the wage of white workers
food & lodging was deducted from their wages
more than 600 died because of accidents or illnesses during 4 years of construction After the CPR was completed in 1885, many Chinese couldn't afford to travel back to China
they had been lied to about the about their food and equipment, as it had been deducted from their wages
moved to Vancouver and Victoria to find work
More Chinese meant more discrimination and prejudice
The "Knights of Labour," an organized group of Whites, campaigned to have all Chinese removed from Vancouver
they intimidated the Chinese to force them out of town The British in BC wanted to recreate a homogenous British culture, but this was impossible due to Chinese presence
therefore, they were looked at as infererior and unable to assimilate
1885: The government decided to limit the Chinese immigration
each immigrant was required to pat a $50 head tax when landing in Canada
ships limited on the amount of immigrants they could bring to Canada In urban areas, the Chinese did work that other British Columbians avoided
English speaking Chinese contractors bid on jobs, and recruited Chinese workers
they were cheated while the contractors made a fortune
Chinese workers were chosen for some jobs over Whites
eg. brick manufaturing
this system, however, ensured lower wages for the Chinese workers
the Whites complained that their wages were being undermined The federal government dispatched surveyors to investigate all possible routes for the new railway
bought time for the gov. to arrange financing for the railway
2 rival groups in BC had their own opinions about where the railway should be built The "Battle of the Routes" engaged throughout the 1870s
Alexander Mackenie, the federal gov. leader, was reluctant to build the railway in both cases
By 1878, 21 different routes were being considered as many other surveyors entered the railway debate
Sanford Fleming, the Chief Surveyor of Canada, favoured his own route that crossed the Rockies at Yellowhead Pass 1885: CPR was completed, and the town of Vancouver had been laid out
June 3, 1886: A fire burnt the town to the ground, but it was quickly rebuilt
the population grew to 5000 by 1890 How did the CPR lead to economic growth in Canada:
the idea of a new transcontinental railway was appealing to many
this brought in large amounts of population, especially in the Vancouver area when it was named the official terminus of the railway
although the cost of the CPR was high, the eventual revenues made from it were greatly worthwile
the CPR could transport trade goods in and out of regions in Canada 1881: Port Moody was named the terminus of the CPR
many came to the land and bought it
1884: William Van Horne came to Port Moody to set the location of the terminus
found that the harbour was made up of tidal flats (low-lying marsh) that would not accomodate deep-sea vessels
Van Horne travelled further down the Inlet to Gastown (named after "Gassy Jack" Deighton on 1868)
found a nice deep water area ideal for ships, and flat land perfect for rail yards
named the site "Vancouver" James Polk 49th Parallel James Douglas Royal Navy Boat June 1869: Governor Seymour suddenly died and Anthony Musgrave chosen to be his successor
tried to convince the anti-confederationists to join Canada, so together they created a polcy on the terms of union then presented their proposal at Ottawa
the Canadaian gov. agreed and promised to begin working on a railroad within 2 years and that it would be completed within 10 Governor Seymour Anthony Musgrave The eventual CPR route "Gassy Jack" Deighton The Great Vancouver Fire of 1886 The CPR Lodging for the Chinese The Knights of Labor Badge Chinese Workers The End!
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