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Spanish Alphabet & Orthography

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by

Mr. De Mora

on 11 August 2016

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Transcript of Spanish Alphabet & Orthography

62
ECG
bpm
You should commit all of these rules to memory. Through learning to apply these rules, you will begin to develop a native-like intuition. We will further strengthen that "intuition" when we reach prefixes/suffixes and word-building. Please do not simply cram and memorize them for the test. You should know them through and through, because similar to what you would encounter in real-life conversation, you will be required to apply these rules with very little time to think.
Welcome to
Boot Camp
How'd you score?
Internalize these rules of orthography, pronunciation, accentuation, and syllabification. They will help you in the long run.
Still alive?
Spanish Pronunciation, Orthography, & Syllabification
There are 5 main vowel sounds in Spanish:
A
E
I
O
U
Strong + Strong = Hiatus

The 5 vowels are divided into
two
categories:
Strong - A, E, O
Weak - I, U
Weak + Weak = Diphthong
When this happens, follow the normal rules of word stress.*
Examples:
empl
ea
do
europ
eo
When this happens, the stress falls on the second vowel.*
Examples:
c
ui
dado
fl
ui
do

Q: What about Strong + Weak combinations?
A: Those also form
diphthongs
.
When this happens, the stress falls on the strong vowel.*
Examples:
ab
ie
rto
f
ue
rte
b
ai
le
*Diphthongs are pronounced as a single syllable.*

Therefore:
ui
sounds like
wea
k


*Remember, diphthongs are pronounced as a single vowel.

Therefore:
ie
sounds like
ye
ti
ue
sounds like q
ue
st
ai
sounds like th
ai
*Word Stress
1 ) Words that end in any consonant other than N or S are stressed on the last syllable.
Examples:
delantal, hablar, salud

2 ) Words that end in a vowel, S, or N are stressed on the penultimate syllable.*
Examples:
palabras, computadoras

3 ) An accent mark, or tilde, must be used to override the first two rules.
Examples:
definición, cojín
PRACTICE
AE – AI – AO – AU

EA – EE – EI – EO – EU

IA – IE – IO – IU

OA – OE – OI – OU

UA – UE – UI – UO

Use a
RED
pen to mark the diphthongs and a
BLUE
pen to mark the hiatus.
Tricky Combos*
GUE
sounds like
GUE
SS
GUI
sounds like
GEE
K
QUE
sounds like
KE
PT
QUI
sounds like
KEE
P
GÜE
sounds like
WE
PT

GUI
sounds like
GEE
K
GUE
sounds like
GUE
ST
GU
sounds like
GOO
SE
GO
sounds like
GO
AT
GA
sounds like
GA
P
GE
sounds like
HE
CK
GI
sounds likek
HE
RE
Hard G
Soft G
Consonant + Vowel Combos
With C
CA
sounds like
CA
TS
CO
sounds like
CO
PE
CU
sounds like
COO
P
CE
sounds like
CE
NT
CI
sounds like
CI
-Ci's (Pizza)
Hard C
Soft C
Consonants can be divided into two categories:
Hard
Soft
Hard B sounds like the B in
B
ed
Hard D sounds like the D in
D
ead
Hard G sounds like the G in
G
od
Hard C sounds like the C in
C
od
Soft G sounds like the English H
Soft C sounds like the English S
G & C sound "hard" when paired with A, O, or U
B & D sound "hard" after a pause in speech
G & C sound "soft" when paired with E or I*
*You may hear
CE
&
CI
pronounced like
TH
INK by Spaniards
*Study these EXTRA hard!
Knowing these combinations

will help tremendously

when we get to verb conjugations.

I can't stress enough how important these are!
With G
With J
JA
sounds like
HA
JE
sounds like
HE
CK
JI
sounds like
HE
JO
sounds like
HO
PE
JU
sounds like
HOO
P
If you do NOT learn these now, you WILL end up losing points in the future due to spelling mistakes, trust me.
You've been warned.
LL
sounds like
Y
OU
Ñ
sounds like CA
NY
ON
CH
sounds like
CH
URCH
H
by itself is
silent
. Always.*
RR
sounds like a purring cat
Tricky Spanish Consonants
B see section on hard and soft consonants
C see section on hard and soft consonants
D see section on hard and soft consonants
F sounds like F
G see section on hard and soft consonants
J sounds like English H
K is typically only used in loan words
L sounds like L
M sounds like M
N sounds like N*
P sounds like P
Q sounds like K
R sounds like MA
TT
ER*
S sounds like S
T is not aspirated unlike the English T; it sounds thicker
V see B
W sounds like W; typically only used in loan words
X sounds like X; may be pronounced like English H
Y sounds like Spanish LL
Z sounds like S*

Spanish Consonants
Consonant Combinations
PH
does not exist in Spanish;
F
is used instead
CK
does not exist in Spanish
CH
sounds like
CH
URCH
LL
sounds like
Y
OU
PS
and
PN
have a
silent P

Two Rules of Thumb
1 ) A word cannot begin with S + Consonant
2 ) No consonants are doubled except C and N
Nearly all words that end with N will be stressed on the
last
syllable and will contain a tilde override for breaking rule 2.
Try reading the following words aloud:
oigo
oíste
caigo
caíste
fuiste
Pronouncing the H when it should be silent WILL cost you points in the future. Build good pronunciation habits from the beginning!
Spanish vowels are ALWAYS pronounced
staccato
. This means they are pronounced abruptly and not drawn out.
The difference can be illustrated by listening to the difference between the words:
B
E
T (
shorter
"e" sound)
B
E
DS (
longer
"e" sound)
C
A
P (
shorter
"a" sound)
C
A
BS (
longer
"a" sound)
*If this rule is broken, the diphthong must contain a tilde override.
With B
Hard B
Soft B
To pronounce the B when it appears between two vowels, your lips should ALMOST touch, but not quite.
When B appears at the beginning of the word (and is the first word uttered after a pause), it sounds like an English B.
With D
Hard D
Soft D
When D appears between two vowels, it should be pronounced like the
TH
in
TH
EM.
When D appears at the beginning of the word (and is the first word uttered after a pause), it sounds like an English D.
For example, the two B's in "bebé" are pronounced differently.
For example, the two D's in "dedo" are pronounced differently.
Important Note:
You made it!!!
Syllabification
NOTE:
When two vowels are combined, they form either a
diphthong
or a
hiatus
. The vowels in a diphthong are pronounced as a single syllable, while those in a hiatus are pronounced as separate syllables.
Only one strong vowel per syllable; strong vowels are always separated. Note, vowels can be their own syllable.
Whenever possible, start a syllable with a consonant followed by a vowel.
Separate doubled consonants unless there is a word in Spanish that can begin with that consonant cluster.
A consonant between two vowels belongs to the second vowel's syllable
General Rules
Practice!
1 ) fuiste
2 ) diversion
3 ) genio
4 ) caida
5 ) pronunciacion
6 ) tocar
7 ) emergencia
8 ) quemado
9 ) carpeta
10 ) museo
11 ) estudioso
12 ) acuerdo
Divide the following words into syllables and put an accent mark, or
tilde
, where necessary:
Stress naturally falls on penultimate syllable, because word ends in a vowel; no accent mark is needed

U and I are both weak vowels, so they form a diphthong

Since U + I form a diphthong, they share a syllable

Doubled consonants are separated

Pronounced "fwees-teh"
1 ) fuis-te
Write down the list of words as I say them aloud. Then, divide them into syllables and include the appropriate accent marks.
Practice!
Practice!
Write down the word pairs as I say them aloud.
Here, you will master the basics of Spanish orthography, pronunciation, accentuation, and syllabification. These tools will be the key to your success in this language.
The is your cue to take notes.
Let's begin.
Fundamentals 1:
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