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Non-Communicable Diseases Explained

A presentation prepared by Dr Alessandro Demaio (@sandrodemaio)

Alessandro Demaio

on 7 August 2014

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Transcript of Non-Communicable Diseases Explained

NCDs Explained
What are NCDs?
6 Facts About NCDs

More people die of NCDs than any other cause, accounting for more than 60% of global mortality - today.

85% of NCDs occur in the worlds POOREST populations. NCDs cause poverty, and entrench people in poverty.
More than 50% of global NCDs occur in people younger than 70, with diabetes affecting more children every day.

NCDs now pose the single biggest threat to women’s health & development, causing 65 % of all female deaths.

The intergenerational burden of chronic disease & its treatment are often greatest on women.
NCDs are not diseases of the lazy.

80% of heart disease and diabetes, and a third of cancers are currently preventable! Representing millions of needless deaths annually.
NCDs are a group of diseases
These diseases are caused by similar determinants and therefore share mitigation and prevention opportunities.
NCDs are deeply rooted in social determinants of health, such as employment and educational opportunities, urban planning and investment, and social equity.
What can be done?
Responding to NCDs is a political issue rather than a technical one
The problem might be complicated, but the solutions are simple.
Support moves to reduce Tobacco and Harmful Alcohol Use
Promote education about foods, their origins and their contents
Demand urban environments which promote healthy lifestyles and physical activity
Support & participate in screening programs for early detection and treatment of NCDs
Postdoc, Harvard Medical School
Assistant Professor, University of Copenhagen
Co-Founder, NCDFREE

NCDs are the leading cause of global deaths - 36M in 2008 alone.
NCDs are not diseases of the rich.
NCDs are not a disease only of the aged.
NCDs do not just affect men.
These deaths can be averted today.
CVDs are the number one cause of death globally
17.3 million people died from CVDs in 2008, representing 30% of all global deaths
23M by 2030
LMIC are disproportionally affected: over 80% of CVD deaths
Poverty is a risk factor identified by WHF
Chronic respiratory diseases cause approximately 7% of all deaths worldwide
Most of the 250K deaths from asthma each year can be attributed to lack of proper treatment & go unrecorded in LMIC
Tobacco use remains legal, although it kills more than 5M people each year, including 1.3M who die of lung cancer, & 600,000 who die from second hand smoke
Deadly synergies exist between diseases such as tuberculosis and HIV/AIDS, influenza and asthma, COPD and lung cancer
12 per cent of the nearly 56 million deaths worldwide in 2000
Rates could further increase by 50% to 15 million new cases in the year 2020
Linked to infections, nutrition & environmental pollutants
NCDs are a group of groups - making advocacy & common targets difficult
285 million people, corresponding to 6.4% of the world's adult population in 2010
Prevalence 10.2% in the Western Pacific
70% of the current cases of diabetes occur in low- and middle income countries- 50.8 million in India and 43.2 million in China
In Mozambique, diabetes care for one person requires 75% of the per capita income; in Mali it amounts to 61%
Heart Disease
Lung Diseases
Also includes mental health (huge DALY), accidents & dental illness.
Reduction of tobacco consumption. It remains the most important avoidable cancer risk. In the 20th century, approximately 100 million people died world-wide from tobacco-associated diseases
We have cost effective solutions and many know what must be done.

It is now translating this into political action through scientific evidence (which we largely have) and societal advocacy & support
A threat...
An Opportunity
Healthier cities.
Stronger economies.
More sustainable living.
Synergies with other disease.
Dr Alessandro Demaio
Support progressive policies ensuring all communities have access to affordable, healthy food options
Be aware of Big Food, its power and its instrinsic conflicts of [fiscal] interests.
Tackling NCDs: a different approach is needed.
The Lancet. Beaglehole et al. 2012.
NCDs are a poverty cycle catalyst.
Full transcript