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Civil War Main Battles
Transcript of Civil War Main Battles
By: Madison Rinker
The American Civil War began on Friday, April 12, 1861 and ended on Saturday, May 13, 1865. There were more than 384 significant battles that occurred during the Civil War.
The Battle of Gettysburg
The battle of Gettysburg was one of the most famous and most important battles of the Civil War. This battle occurred over three hot summer days, July 1 to July 3, 1863, around the small market town of Gettysburg, Pennsylvania. Confederate Gen. Robert E. Lee concentrated his army around Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, upon the approach of Union Gen. George G. Meade’s forces. On July 1, Confederates drove Union defenders through Gettysburg to Cemetery Hill. The next day Lee struck the flanks of the Union line resulting in severe fighting at Devil's Den, Little Round Top, the Wheatfield, Peach Orchard, Culp’s Hill and East Cemetery Hill. Southerners gained ground but failed to dislodge the Union host. On the morning of July 3rd, fighting raged at Culp’s Hill with the Union regaining its lost ground. That afternoon, Lee attacked the Union center on Cemetery Ridge. Lee's second invasion of the North had failed.
The Battle of Fort Sumter
The Battle of Fort Sumter was the first battle of the American Civil War. On April 12, 1861, General P.G.T. Beauregard, in command of the Confederate forces around Charleston Harbor, opened fire on the Union garrison holding Fort Sumter. At 2:30pm on April 13 Major Robert Anderson, garrison commander, surrendered the fort and was evacuated the next day. This had signaled the start of the American Civil War.
April 12, 1861- April 13, 1861
July 1, 1863- July 3,1863
First Bull Run
July 21, 1861
The Battle of Shiloh
April 6, 1862- April 7, 1862
The Battle of Antietam
September 17, 1862
The Battle of Fredericksburg
December 13, 1862
The Battle of Palmetto Ranch
The Army of the Potomac, under the command of George McClellan, mounted a series of powerful assaults against Robert E. Lee’s forces near Sharpsburg, Maryland, on September 17, 1862. The morning assault and vicious Confederate counterattacks swept back and forth through Miller’s Cornfield and the West Woods. Later, towards the center of the battlefield, Union assaults against the Sunken Road pierced the Confederate center after a terrible struggle. Late in the day, the third and final major assault by the Union army pushed over a bullet-strewn stone bridge at Antietam Creek.
This was the first major land battle of the armies in Virginia. On July 16, 1861, the Union army under Brig. Gen. Irvin McDowell marched from Washington against the Confederate army, which was drawn up behind Bull Run beyond Centreville. On the 21st, McDowell crossed at Sudley Ford and attacked the Confederate left flank on Matthews Hill. Fighting raged throughout the day as Confederate forces were driven back to Henry Hill. Late in the afternoon, Confederate reinforcements extended and broke the Union right flank. The Federal retreat rapidly deteriorated into a rout.
On November 14, Burnside, now in command of the Army of the Potomac, sent a corps to occupy the vicinity of Falmouth near Fredericksburg. The rest of the army soon followed. Lee reacted by entrenching his army on the heights behind the town. On December 11, Union engineers laid five bridges across the Rappahannock under fire. On the 12th, the Federal army crossed over, and on December 13, Burnside mounted a series of futile frontal assaults on Prospect Hill and Marye’s Heights that resulted in staggering casualties. Meade’s division, on the Union left flank, briefly penetrated Jackson’s line but was driven back by a counterattack. Union generals C. Feger Jackson and George Bayard, and Confederate generals Thomas R.R. Cobb and Maxey Gregg were killed. On December 15, Burnside called off the offensive and recrossed the river, ending the campaign.
On the morning of April 6, 1862, 40,000 Confederate soldiers under the command of Gen. Albert Sidney Johnston poured out of the nearby woods and struck a line of Union soldiers occupying ground near Pittsburg Landing on the Tennessee River. The overpowering Confederate offensive drove the unprepared Federal forces from their camps and threatened to overwhelm Ulysses S. Grant’s entire command. Some Federals made determined stands and by afternoon, they had established a battle line at the sunken road, known as the “Hornet's Nest.” Repeated Rebel attacks failed to carry the Hornet's Nest, but massed artillery helped to turn the tide as Confederates surrounded the Union troops and captured, killed, or wounded most. During the first day’s attacks, Gen. Johnston was mortally wounded and was replaced by P.G.T. Beauregard. Fighting continued until after dark, but the Federals held. By the next morning, the reinforced Federal army numbered about 40,000, outnumbering Beauregard’s army of less than 30,000. Grant’s April 7th counteroffensive overpowered the weakened Confederate forces and Beauregard’s army retired from the field. The two day battle at Shiloh produced more than 23,000 casualties.
The action began when Federal troops stationed on Brazos Island, just south of Padre Island and north of the Rio Grande, moved onto the Texas mainland on the night of May 11–12. Inconclusive skirmishing on May 12 and the morning of May 13 drove a battalion of Rebel cavalry west of Palmetto Ranch, where it was reinforced by artillery and cavalry commanded by Colonel John S. “Rip” Ford. Finding the Federal force located deep in a bend of the Rio Grande, Ford sought to trap his enemies, commanded by Colonel Theodore Barrett, by sending a flanking column to cut the Union troops off from the road leading back to Brazos Island
May 11, 1865- May 12, 1865
Mrs. Bell for assigning this project
My Mom for helping me with details