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The Progressive Era

U.S. History
by

Michele Goostree

on 5 February 2018

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Transcript of The Progressive Era

3. Living Conditions for Urban Poor
The Progressive Era Awaits...
Clean, paved streets
Progressivism
New ideas
+honest, efficient government
=social justice
Reform movement!
4 Problems of the Progressive Era
1. Political Reform
No government regulation = corruption in business
Political "Bosses"
~buy elections
~bribe officials and business owners
2. Business/Labor Reform
More economic opportunity for small business
Better/safer working conditions
End child labor
Safe drinking water
Municipal Services
Decent housing
4. Women lack the right to vote
Muckrakers
Muckraker (definition)
~journalist who dramatized need for social reform
~"sensational" reports exposed problems of early 20th Century
Realities of tenement life shown to rich/middle class
Abuse of child labor in coal mines
Unsanitary conditions in meat packing industry
4 Reform Movements of Progressive Era
1. Social Gospel
Follow God's teachings of charity and justice
Purpose: Make society better
2. Settlement House
Provided social services to urban poor
Classes on child care
Taught immigrants English
Nursery school and kindergartens
Jane
Addams
3. Children
Ban child labor
Push for education
Debate over age and curriculum
4. Safe Industrial Areas
Goal: Reduce high rate of accidents
Reduce hours, increase ventilation, safer machines
Triangle Shirtwaist Factory fire (1911)
Catalyst for reform in workplace safety
Worked for:
~end of child labor
~shorter work week
~limit power of corporations in government
Women Make Progress
Working women face hardships...
National Consumers League (NCL)
The Temperance Movement
Women's Christian Temperance Union (WCTU)
Ida B. Wells
National Association of Colored Women (NACW)
Suffrage
long hours and dangerous conditions
hand over paycheck to man of the house
little to no education
cheated or bullied by employers
3 Goals:
1. Control prices of necessary consumer items
2. Production in safe/healthy work conditions
3. Gov't reform of meat-packing industry and workplace safety
Temperance (definition):
the practice of not drinking
Why?
Alcohol led to:
~abuse of wages, neglect/abuse of family
Goal: help families strive for success; assist less fortunate
WCTU work led to passage of 18th Amendment
Raised money for daycare for black children
(definition): Right to vote
Early Suffragettes:
Susan B. Anthony
and
Elizabeth Cady Stanton
Women Involved
Carrie Chapman Catt
Jane Addams
Carrie Chapman Catt
and the NAWSA
National American Woman Suffrage Association
"Winning Plan"
1. Women lobby Congress for Const. Amendment
2. Women use referendum for state suffrage laws
"Society Plan"
Wealthy, well-educated women recruit women from ALL levels of society to fight for suffrage.
NAOWS
~Suffrage took women's attention away from family and volunteer work
Alice Paul and the National Woman's Party
1917
Began public protest marches
First group to picket White House
Hundreds of women arrested, use hunger strikes
"Civil Disobedience" = Passage of 19th Amendment
The Struggle Against Discrimination
Americanization
Social Darwinism
Affected immigrants
Teach white middle-class fashion, values
Why?
Assimilation = more loyal and moral citizen

Pushed to replace foods, customs of homeland
"Scientific" theory
Dark-skinned people less intelligent than whites
Theory used to pass discriminatory laws
Theory used as excuse for imperialism
See Podcast for information
http://www.educreations.com/lesson/view/the-progressive-era-section-2-the-struggle-against/13700592/
Impact of Presidents of the Progressive Era
William McKinley
(1897-1901)

"Moral Philosophy"
America's job to "Christianize and civilize those who are not."

Theodore Roosevelt
(1901-1909)
"Square Deal"
Keep wealthy and powerful from taking advantage of small business owners and the poor.
William Howard Taft
(1909-1913)
"Dollar Diplomacy"
Expand American investments abroad
"Moral Diplomacy"
Assist countries that had the same interests and moral issues
Woodrow Wilson
(1913-1921)
Imperialism
(definition): extending a country's power and influence through diplomacy and military force.
McKinley's Ideas About Imperialism
American imperialism=strong American economy
Roosevelt the "Trustbuster"
Goal:
Gov't regulation of corporations

Elkins Act
Illegal for railroad to give rebates to corporations
Hepburn Act
No more free passes for rides
(corporate bosses/families/friends)
Roosevelt the Protector
Meat Inspection Act (1906)
Inspection of meat before, during, and after slaughter
Inspection of sanitation practices at plants
Monitor processing
Pure Food and Drug Act (1906)
Truth in labeling!
Conservation and Natural Resources
Created "acts" to establish:
national parks
protected wildlife
restrict use of certain land for hunting
Roosevelt did not support Civil Rights for minorities or immigrants
Political corruption leads to 'party' split
(Republican Party)
Continues tradition of imperialism & trust busting
Appointed Chief Justice of Supreme Court in '21
Wilson v. Trusts and Tariffs
No legal action against strikers
*Reduced tariffs (taxes on imports)
Supported farmers and unions
Strengthened Anti-trust laws
Increase trade regulations (international)
Wilson v. Federal Income Tax
16th Amendment Federal Income Tax legal
*farmers and factory workers initially exempt
Wilson v. Federal Reserve
Divided country into 12 banking regions
Power to issue paper $ and transfer federal funds
Impact:
Makes credit easily available nation-wide
Keeps inflation low
The Spanish-American War
Causes of War
1. Cubans Rebel Against Spanish Rule
2. Yellow Journalism
Hearst V. Pulitzer
New York Journal
New York World
How Hollywood & Broadway Remember It...
"I don't have original ideas, but I'm good at buying them."
"Do you even muckrake, bro?"
The Yellow Kid
Represent intelligence of:
poor
uneducated
slighted
members of society
Original comic strip in Pulitzer's New York World
Jose Marti
Led guerilla fighters in raids against Spanish
Inspired Americans to support Cubans
1897
Americans businesses had $50 million invested in sugar cane
Cuba growing market for U.S.
Repetitive Cuban rebellions v. Spain
"Rebels" placed in concentration camps
~ten of thousands die of disease/starvation
"Remember the
Maine
"
FACTS:
U.S. Warship
Docked in Havana Harbor
Exploded February 15, 1898
266 U.S. soldiers killed
UNCLEAR:
Cause of explosion
"In the name of humanity, in the name of civilization, in behalf of endangered American interests."
~William H. McKinley
Philippines
May 1, 1898
Why the Philippines?
Remove Spanish imperialism.
Why the Philippines?
(for real)
Psst...zoom out...
Commodore George Dewey
Emilio Aguinaldo
Want to see something cool?
First film footage of U.S. troops in "battle"
Cuba
June 1898-August 1898
"A splendid little war."
~John Hay, Secretary of State
American soldiers were:
poorly trained
ill equipped
sick (yellow fever)
Government supplied soldiers with:
obsolete weapons
wool uniforms
rotting & contaminated food
How the heck does America "win"?
Reinforcements!
Naval blockade + "Rough Riders" = Victory
Fun Fact:
Hot air balloons first used as weapons of war in Spanish-American War
Effects of Spanish-American War
Treaty of Paris 1898
Ends war with Spain
Spain gives U.S. control of Cuba, Puerto Rico, & Guam
Sold Philippines to U.S. for $20 million
America has no choice but to "take them all, and to educate the Filipinos, and uplift and civilize...them."
~William H. McKinley
Imperialists
Anti-Imperialists
Philippines is a valuable stepping stone to trade with China
Disloyalty to principles of our government
Don't we have some issues here to address?
https://www.educreations.com/lesson/view/american-imperialism/14025292/
The final section of this unit (Imperialism)is found at this link:
From The Presidents
"#26: Theodore Roosevelt"
History Channel, 2005.
From The Presidents
#25: William McKinley
History Channel, 2005
From
The Presidents
"#27: William Howard Taft"
History Channel, 2005.
From
The Presidents
"#28: Woodrow Wilson
History Channel, 2005.
Uncovered corruption in city/state government
Lincoln Steffens
Jacob Riis
John Spargo
Upton Sinclair
Lewis Hine
Documented child labor and workplace accidents for children.
Ida Tarbell
Shed light on Rockefeller's monopolization of the oil industry.
Pioneer social activist
Focused on:
Needs of mothers
Needs of children
Public health
World peace
First American woman awarded the Nobel Peace Prize
First Anti-Lynching 'Crusader'
Challenged real reasons for lynching were:
black economic progress
whites feeling threatened by economic competition
Wrote several pamphlets and proposed legislation
Sued 45 companies under Sherman Antitrust Act
Symbol of yellow journalism
(Mickey Dugan)
Full transcript