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The Urinary System

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by

Greg Horesovsky

on 13 September 2013

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Transcript of The Urinary System

The Urinary System Kidney transplants are performed in cases of chronic and debilitating kidney disease and renal failure of both kidneys DISORDERS OF THE URINARY SYSTEM Dialysis is the treatment for kidney failure in which blood is passed through a device in order to remove waste, salt, and excess water from the blood DISORDERS OF THE URINARY SYSTEM Micturition (Urination)
As the bladder fills, reflex triggered
Stretch receptors
Usually ~200 mL begin to sense the need to urinate
Internal and external sphincters open
Leaves ~10 mL in the bladder normally Micturition Reflex Albuminuria – large proteins present
Glucosuria – glucose present
Hematuria – blood cells present
Pyuria – pus (neutrophils) present
Ketones – ketones present (indicates insufficient insulin) Abnormal Urine Constituents Renin – regulates arterial BP (to maintain glomerular filtration rate GFR)

Aldosterone – Increase H2O and Na retention at kidneys

ADH (anti-diuretic hormone)- Increase H2O retention at kidneys

Atrial natriuretic hormone (ANH)
Reduces H2O and Na retention at kidneys
Secreted by heart cells

PTH – Increases Ca reabsorption at kidneys

Erythropoietin – Promotes RBC production Hormones URINARY SYSTEM Glomerular filtration
Blood flowing through has high pressure
Only RBC’s and plasma proteins remain in the capillary

Reabsorption
Occurs in renal tubule
Glucose, AA, vitamins, HCO3, some electrolytes, water
~ 90% of water that leaves blood is reabsorbed and returned to blood

Secretion
Moves substances from pericapillary tubules into urine in proximal and distal convoluted tubules
K, creatinine, histamine, H ions, drugs, ammonia, urea, uric acid URINE FORMATION
IN THE NEPHRON Proximal convoluted tubule

Nephron Loop (Loop of Henle)
Descending water permeable
Ascending not water permeable

Distal convoluted tubule

Collecting tubule Renal Tubule Nephron and collecting system Reabsorbing all of the useful organic molecules from the filtrate

Reabsorbing over 90% of the water in filtrate

Secreting waste products missed by filtration into tubular fluid Functions of Nephrons Begins at the renal corpuscle
Round structure consisting of the glomerular (Bowman’s)capsule
Cup-shaped chamber that contains a glomerulus
Blood pressure forces fluid and dissolved solutes out of the capillaries and into the capsular space
This is called filtrate
Filtrate enters the renal tubule
Tubular fluid
Reabsorption of water and organic molecules
Nephrons empty tubular fluid containing waste into collecting ducts Nephrons Functional unit of kidney
Over 100 million/kidney
Blood supply
2 portions
Renal corpuscle
Renal tubule Nephrons Blood supply to the Kidney Renal Artery
Interlobular arteries
Arcuate arteries
Cortical radiate arteries
Afferent arterioles
Peritubular capillaries
Efferent arterioles
Arcuate veins
Interlobular veins
Renal Vein Two kidneys
Bean shaped
Approx. 10 cms long
Back of abdomen
Retroperitoneal
Blood Supply
Delivered by renal artery
Taken away by renal vein Kidneys Rid body of waste materials:
Nitrogenous wastes
Certain salts
Excess water
Regulate Fluid volume in the blood
Maintain electrolyte balance in the blood
Controls pH of blood
Secretes hormones
Erythropoietin (regulates erythropoiesis)
Renin (regulates blood pressure)
Assists in utilization of Vitamin D to make calcitriol URINARY SYSTEM FUNCTIONS
2 Kidneys
2 Ureters
1 Bladder
1 Urethra URINARY SYSTEM Water content of food ~1000mL
Liquid consumption ~1200mL
Metabolic water production ~300mL
APPROXIMATELY 2500mL INPUT

Urination ~1200mL
Evaporation at skin ~750mL
Evaporation at lungs ~400mL
Feces ~150mL
APPROXIMATELY 2500mL OUTPUT Water Balance (Homeostasis) Bowman’s capsule
Surrounds glomerulus
Collects filtrate from blood
Glomerulus
Afferent/efferent arteriole Renal Corpuscle Layers
Cortex
Contains proximal and distal C.T.
Medulla
Contains Loop of Henle
Renal Pyramids
Renal Pelvis
Minor Calyx, Major Calyx Kidneys cont’d urethra bladder ureters Distal convoluted tubule to ureter
One from each kidney
Travels from the ureters into the bladder
Muscular
Holds ~500 mL
Rugae
Bladder to urethra
Urethra to Urethral/Urinary meatus
7-8” in males
1-1.5” in females Pathway of Urine
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