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Concrete, Stone, and Masonry

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Olga Espiritu

on 28 January 2014

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Transcript of Concrete, Stone, and Masonry

Concrete, Stone, and Masonry
STONE AND
MASONRY

-art or trade of building in stone, universally practiced since ancient times. It is the building of structures from individual units laid in and bound together by mortar.
Building
Stones
Classes of
Stone Masonry
by and Friends
Olga
Aesthetics
Characteristics
and
Properties
Installation
History
Characteristics
Properties
Types
Composition

Uses and Installation
Aesthetic
While “gray” might be the first image that comes to mind when you think of concrete,
BRANDS
CONCRETE
The idea of iron reinforcing bars came when Joseph Monier of France reinforced flower pots with wires.
-a synthetic construction material made by mixing four ingredients together in proper proportions.
USES
Beams, drain tiles, piers, steps
o Post, Beam and Deck
o Pilasters and round column forms
o Hardscape < Pavers
o Soil solidification
o Insulating Concrete Form
o Motorways/roads, overpasses and parking structures
o Brick/block walls and bases for gates, fences and poles
o Building structure, fences and poles

Concrete Floor Slab Installation
Step 1: Mark the location of the slab edges
Step 2: Clear the footprint of
the building (slab)
Step 3: Set the form of your slab using
batter board/form board or equivalent
Step 4: Install necessary electrical
wires and plumbing pipes
Step 5: Pretreat the fill and subgrade
for insects using approved termiticide
Step 6: Install the required moisture barrier or waterproof membrane (polyethylene).
Step 7: Install rebar
Step 8: Pour concrete mixture
Step 9: Check concrete alignment
Step 10: *Curing stage
Columns (+Footing and Foundation)
Step 1: Clear the designated area of the foundation.
Step 2: Dig trenches for footing
Step 3: Construct Column/Footing Rebar
Step 4: Place the rebar into the trench
Step 5: Make a formwork
Step 6: Pour the concrete mixture
Step 7: *Curing Stage
(additional notes)
Plaster
- mixture of cement, lime, sand and water
- concrete finish
Grout
- used to fill the cores or voids in hollow masonry units for the purpose
- cement + sand +considerable amount of water

Plastering and Leveling

Appearance & color
– Uniform color, darker shades are preferred..

Structure
– Not dull in appearance, Close and fine grained is good. Stratification should not be visible.

Weight
– Heavier are compact, less porous and are good for hydraulic structures.

Strength
– Generally compressive strength is needed.

Hardness
– Resistance to abrasion, friction and wear.

Toughness
– Withstands impact, vibrations, moving and dead loads.

Porosity and Absorption
– Exposed surface absorbs rain water which forms acids causing crumbling action.
(Less porous stones absorb less fluid hence are more durable.)

Resistance to fire


Durability
– Compact stones are more durable.
1. Block and Brick layering(using concrete hollow blocks/CHB)
Step 1: Excavate a trench for wall (and column footing)
Step 2: Compact gravel
bedding
Step 3: Lay 2 10 or 12 mm d. horizontal reinforcing steel bars. (note: with #4 vertical dowels @ 16” o.c. with alternate bonds in footing.)


Step 4: Make a concrete and mortar mix (see ratio)
Step 5: Pour concrete mix (curing stage)
Pavement
Wall Finish (veneer stone)
Step 1: Select veneer style
Step 2: Determine the quantity of the veneer by multiplying the length by the height of the area and then subtract the total area of the openings such as doors and windows. (it is best to increase the estimate by 5- 10 percent – cutting and trimming)
Step 3: Attach waterproof membrane (water resistant building paper), and galvanized metal lathe)
Step 4: Layout stone pattern
Step 5: Apply mortar onto the wall using trowel
Step 6: Score the surface in a horizontal direction.
Step 7: wait for 24 hours (mortar setting)
Step 8: apply about half inch of mortar to the entire back part of the stone
Step 9: press the stone firmly against the scratch coat
Step 10: Brush away to excess mortar using dry brush. (using wet brush may result to staining – which is difficult to remove)
Step 11: Lastly, use a grout bag to carefully fill in the mortar joints
Step 6: Apply mortar on sides of Concrete Hollow Blocks and then, lay concrete hollow blocks


Step 3: Lay Cobblestone Pavers
Step 4: Compact the Pavers
If you have laid them on top of base rock though, lightly spray the cobbles with water and go over them with a compactor.

Step 5: Mix the Grout
Step 6: Pour and Spread the Grout
Once you've finished the whole area, use a stiff-bristle push broom to clean up any remnants again.

Step 2: Add Sand
Pour sand over the whole area and use a rake to spread it out about an inch thick.

Step 1: Prepare the Base
(Source: http://www. youtube.com/watch?v=YPfjBmjnJSE)
(Source: http://www.diynetwork.com/how-to/how-to-install-a-cobblestone-patio-on-concrete-or-bare-soil/index.html)
(Sources: http://myphilippinelife.com/our-house-project-walls/ http://www.cd3wd.com/cd3wd_40/cd3wd/CONSTRUC/G05BUE/GIF/P74.GIF http://www.wildgingerfarm.com/ConcreteBlockRaisedBed.htm http://www. youtube.com/watch?v=njOdKARVUcM)
(Source: http://cescientist.com/characteristics-of-good-building-stone/)
(Source: http://www.gsa.gov/portal/content/112858)
(Source: http://www.slideshare.net/ulrick04)
(Sources: http://www. youtube.com/watch?v=_Lsrn7DdayA, www.familyhandyman.com, http://www.keytec.co.uk/img/slides/keytec-642-slide-2.jpg, http://loverainbowsandbutterflies.com/images/Termicide.jpg)
(http://www.gharexpert.com/articles/Cement-Concrete-1644/Column-Frame-Structure-Building_0.aspx, http://www. youtube.com/watch?v=njOdKARVUcM)
allow us to help your mind's eye see a little further
source: http:// www.liftmyconcrete.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/02/Texture__Concrete_Cracked_by_ivelt_resources.jpg
Stamped Concrete
Coloring
Concrete
Staining Concrete
Coloring Concrete Integrally
Using a Color Hardener
Dyeing Concrete
Exposed
Aggragate
Rock Salt
Finish
a.k.a. textured concrete
concrete that is imprinted to resemble natural paving materials such as flagstone, stone, slate, brick, tile, wood, etc.
less expensive than the paving materials it resembles
A herringbone pattern is good for elongating small spaces because it draws the eye forward.

This pattern is very popular for walkways but can be used for any type of paving.

Herringbone textured concrete goes particularly well with Victorian or English homes.
`
stones or rocks?
Both rocks and stones consist of the same material. Rocks are made of smaller stones and stones are made from rocks.
http://www. decoconcreteinc.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/09/stamped-concrete. jpg
http:// www. oceansrg.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/05/Stamped-Concrete-Driveway .jpg
http:// customconcreteplus.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/03/decorative-stamped-concrete-patio .jpg
Patterns:
Ashlar slate replicates the look of hand-chiseled stone.

A popular pattern for patios and pool decks.
The cobblestone pattern is a popular choice for driveways and accents such as borders or bands running through a patio.

Small and square, cobblestones are known for their tumbled or aged appearance.
The European fan pattern looks great with homes that have old-world character.
Running bond pattern is popular on paths, patios, pool decks and driveways. It is also often used for borders or decorative bands
If you really wish that you could have a deck but know that it is not appropriate for your climate, or you don’t want to deal with the upkeep, then concrete with a wood plank pattern is a good option.
If you love the look of irregular flagstone, this is the pattern for you.

Concrete stamped with this pattern is common for patios, pool decks, walkways and even driveways.
http:// www. clevelandconcretestamping.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/02/Stamped-Concrete-Patterns .jpg
from http://www.landscapingnetwork.com/concrete/patterns.html
Flemish / Flander's Weave
Basket Weave
Regal
Seamless
http:// www. designerconcrete.com.au/concrete/stamped/stamped_patterns. asp
Mediterranean
Octagon
Bushrock
http://www.featureconcrete.com.au/patterns_range_for_stencilled_coloured_concrete.html
http:// www. bullioncoatings.com/images/patterns/bc_patterns_med. jpg
Most Common Colors
TAN

Common manufacturer names: golden wheat, buff, beige, adobe, sand

Can be achieved with stains, integral pigments and color hardeners
BROWN

Common manufacturer names: cola, umber, walnut, cocoa, mocha

Best achieved with stains and color hardeners

GRAY

Common manufacturer names: slate, pebble, charcoal, pewter, silver, smoke

Can be achieved with color hardeners and integral pigments
AMBER

Common manufacturer names: terra cotta, burnt orange, bronze, gold

Can be achieved with stains, color hardeners and integral pigments
RED

Common manufacturer names: brick, rose, chestnut

Best achieved with stains or color hardener
From: http://concretemiracles.com/concretemiracles-gallery/concrete-staining/#/
From: www.scofield.com
http://www.jlconcretedesigns.ca/wp-content/uploads/2009/03/color-wheel1 .jpg
http://www.butterfieldcolor.com/img/p-color-hardener-01. jpg
http://elitedrivewayscd.co.uk/Images/Staedashlar_000. jpg
http://greenpiece1.files.wordpress.com/2013/04/colorhard .jpg
a traditional and easy method for adding subtle texture and skid resistance to plain or colored concrete.

Rock salt is added as the concrete is setting up. It is later washed out leaving a small irregular holes.
http://www.concretenetwork.com/photo-gallery/site_26/94975-ca%20-lasting-impressions-in-concrete_6970/
http://www.tulsalandscape.com/Portals/15715/Gallery/Album/3194/saltcon .jpg
http://static.concretenetwork.com/photo-gallery/images/675x529Max/site_26/rock-salt-finish-rock-salt-finished-concrete-rock-salted-concrete-l-m-scofield-company_7691 .jpg
Pattern bond refers to the pattern formed by the masonry units and mortar joints on the face of a wall.The pattern may result from the structural bond or may be purely decorative and unrelated to the structural bond.
Stucco
Finishes
http://tikalconstruction.yolasite.com/resources/diff_stucco_finishes .jpg
http://rswcompany.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/12/Stucco-Finish .png
White
Concrete
History
Adobe blocks
Kiln-dried Bricks
Stones
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/7/75/Milyanfan-adobe-bricks-8038.jpg/800px-Milyanfan-adobe-bricks-8038 .jpg
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/3/3e/India_-_Sights_%26_Culture_-_Rural_Brick_Making_Kiln_03_%284040765932%29. jpg
http://dynamicorange.com/uploads/wallpaper/DryStoneWall_1600x1200. jpg
600 BC
200 BC
2013
1793
3000 BC
6500 BC
The Greeks discovered a natural pozzolan material.
The Romans made cement from
Pozzuolana and
Harena fossicia
.
John Smeaton discovered a more modern method for producing hydraulic lime for cement.
He used limestone containing clay that was fired until it turned into clinker, which was then ground it into powder.
An Englishman named Joseph Aspdin invented Portland cement.
Nabataea traders or Bedouins built the first concrete-like structures.
Egyptians used gypsum and lime mortars in building the pyramids.
Ruins of an ancient Nabatean City.
The Nabateans also discovered the advantages of hydraulic lime.
http://fleetingcomforts.files.wordpress.com/2013/08/pyramids-of-giza-egypt-history.
The Great Pyramid at Giza
The northern Chinese used a form of cement in boat-building and in building the Great Wall.
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/1/10/20090529_Great_Wall_8185
Roman Baths
The Colosseum
Eddystone Lighthouse in Cornwall, England
Building Milestones
In 1904, the first concrete high-rise building was constructed in Cincinnati, Ohio
In 1911, the Risorgimento Bridge was built in Rome.
Expertise in building with reinforced concrete eventually allowed the development of a new way of building with concrete.
In 1891, George Bartholomew poured the first concrete street in the U.S.
Ingalls Building
Sydney Opera House
Church of the Holy Sacrifice
Strong in compression but weak in tension

(Structurally, it is the force that pushes together or crushes, as opposed to tension, which is the force that pulls apart, steel reinforcement is required to handle tensile and shear stresses)

Relatively low-cost

(readily available materials, low maintenance, 50,000 years life span)

Non-combustible

Can be molded or cast into almost any desired shape

(molds and casting can occur on the work-site which reduces costs)

Resistant to wind, water, rodents, and insects
HARDNESS
resistant to abraision
CREEP
deformation under sustain load.
SHRINKAGE
diminishing in volume during the process of drying and hardening
POROSITY AND ABSORPTION
sizes of pores left during hydration process or created by excessive evaporation and shrinkage cracks
FIRE
RESISTANCE
Type I: Normal –for general construction
Type II: Moderate – for considerably large size structures
Type III: High Early Strength (HES) - high strength is desired at early periods
Type IV: Low Heat - generates less heat hydration
Type V: Sulfate Resistant – high resistant to sulfate attack
CONCRETE = Cement + Sand + Gravel + Water + Admixture
Class | Cement per bag | Sand per M3 | Gravel Per M3 | Water Per gallon | Strength PSI Uses
AAA 1 1 2 6 4,500 Pre- stresses
and Post - tensioned
AA 1 1.5 3 6 4,000 Underwater
retaining wall, shear wall
and elevator core walls
A 1 2 4 6 3,500 Footings, pier,
columns, girders, arches,
stair, beams, joists and
slabs
B 1 2.5 5 6 3,000 Slabs on fill and
non-load bearing wall or
4” CHB
C 1 3 6 6 2,500 Concrete plant
boxes and parapet walls
D 1 3.5 7 6 2,000 Plant boxes,
footpaths, walkway and
lean concrete

CEMENT

Any chemical binder that makes bodies adhere to it or to each other

-4 parts limestone and 1 part mixed clay, burned and pulverized

- sold in 40 kilos per bags
SAND (fine aggregates)

-natural sand or crushed stone well graded with size from 0.003-¼ inch (0.076 - 6.4mm )
GRAVEL (course aggregates)

-crushed stone or blast furnace slags with size from ¼ inch - 1 ½ inches (6.4mm - 37.5mm)
WATER – H2O
ADMIXTURE (additive) (as required by situations) - ingredients added to concrete to enhance its properties immediately before or after mixing
ARGILITTE
- A shale composed mostly of clay and silt dark blue with faint shades of green

-use for: floor tile, stair threads, coping stones, interior wall base, interior window
GRANITE
– igneous origin, hard, strong and durable
-comes in diferrent colors: red, pink, yellow, green, blue, white, brown
-use for: flooring, wall paneling, column, mullion facing, stair thread, flagstone

LIMESTONE
-A sedimentary rock composed mostly of calcium carbonate, calcium, or dolomite
-low absorption, smooth, homogenous (uniform in structure and composition), high compressive and tensile strength
-use for: wall and floor surfaces

http://www.natural-stone.org/
londonceramics.co.uk/
TRAVERTINE
-a variety of limestone deposited by running water
-use for: floor and interior walls

ceramexcel.com
crgstone.com
MARBLE
-A metamorphic rock, chiefly calcium carbonate, with various impurities that give it distinctive colors
-use for: floor, wall and column facing

SERPENTINE
-Rock largely composed of hydrous magnesium silicateand commonly occurring in greenish shades
-use for: interior walls

SANDSTONE
- cemented or otherwise compacted sedimentary rockcomposed predominantly of sand grains
-use as: cut stone for carved ornament.

SLATE ROCK
-A fine-grained metamorphic rock, may be separated into thin though sheets called slate
-use for: flooring, window sills, stools, stair treads and facing

en.wikipedia.org
RUBBLE
-Rough stones of irregular shape and size, broken from larger masses by geological processes or by quarrying



ASHLAR
-Any squared building stone. The term usually refers to thin stone used as facing




TRIMMING
-stone cuts for specific purposes (moulding, jambs, sill, cornice, etc)

geology.about.com
thecraftsmanblog.com
http://flexiblelearning.auckland.ac.nz/
commons.wikimedia.org
http://earthphysicsteaching.homestead.com/
www.completetile.com
http://mengzoo.com/
wikimedia.org
commons.wikimedia.org
http://geniusinteriordesigns.com/
Stone Masonry
Ashlar
Rubble
1. Random
coursed
uncoursed
2. Square Rubble Masonry
coursed
uncoursed
3. Polygonal
4. Flint
5. Dry
1. Ashlar Fine
2. Ashlar Rough Tooled
3. Rock or Quarry Faced
4. Ashlar Chamfered
5. Ashlar block in course
http://www.slideshare.net/prabhazigzag/types-of-stone-masonry#
GAMEEE
Ashlar
Coastal Reef
Country Rubble
Cypress Ridge
http://www.eldoradostone.com/trade-community/specification-library/hatch-patterns/
Field Ledge
Hillstone
Rough Cut
Mountain Ledge
River Rock
Stacked Stone
Rustic

Coastal Reef
BRANDs
AND
COST
Bed- mortar upon which brick is laid
Course- layer of masonry unit running horizontally in a wall
Bond- arrangement of masonry units laid in a pattern
fornobravo.com
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