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Cordillera Administrative Region

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Michelle Jerica Tobias

on 9 January 2014

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Transcript of Cordillera Administrative Region

Cordillera Administrative Region

Cordillera Central
is a massive mountain range situated in the northern central
part of the island of Luzon, in the Philippines.
Boasts its own collection of natural wonders that are otherwise not found in the rest of the Cordilleras.
Dubbed as “Cordillera’s Last Frontier for Nature Richness.”
Here, underground rivers, majestic waterfalls, magnificent lakes hug a unique land that is replete with captivating caves, picture-pretty parks, and exotic wildlife. 
Well-known for its mummy caves which contain naturally mummified bodies
Characterized in the western portion by sharp crested interlinking peaks of the steep slope, isolated flat lands, plateaus, and valleys.
The eastern portion has generally rolling, gradually sloping foothills. With interlocking wide tracks of flat lands and flood plains along its main drainage system.
Dubbed as the “Prince of the Highlands” in the Philippines.

Major Festival
Natural dyes are extracted from the barks, leaves, fruits, and roots of these plants, and used to color food, beverages, textiles, cosmetics, furniture, and pharmaceutical products. 

Mountain Province
Known as the “Weaver’s Paradise” due to the presence of various weaving centers
This was a province that practiced the traditional parliamentary/participatory form of governance as evidenced by the presence of the Dap-ay/Ato, a traditional form of governance led by the respected elders in the community.
This is the name of the historical province that included most of the current Cordillera provinces.
Well-known for its mummy caves which contain naturally mummified bodies.

The region is dubbed as the “Watershed Cradle of North Luzon”.
Ang patag na lupain ay matatagpuan sa pagitan ng mga bundok.
Panagbenga or Baguio Flower Festival
The Ulalim Festival in Kalinga
Lang-ay Festival
inMountain Province
Abra was formerly called El Abrade Vigan or the opening of Viganand was an early encomienda of the spaniards.The first settlers of Abra came from the Bontocs and Ifugaos ancestry; others were from Tingguians or Itnegs descendants.
In the 15th century during the Spanish regime, a barracks was built in Bangued to protect the settlers who converted to Christianity from Tingguian attacks. A few years later, one of the well-known revolutionist, Gabriela Silang and her army came to Abra from Ilocos and continued their revolt. Then in 1763, Gabriela Silang was captured and hanged by the Spaniards.

During the 18th century, Ilocos region was divided into Ilocos Norte and Ilocos Sur, and Abra became a political-military province in 1846 until the arrival of the Americans in 1899.

In 1908, Abra was again placed under the governance of the Ilocos Sur region. However on March 9, 1917, Abra was re-established as a province. Conrado Balweg, the famous revolutionary priest of the Cordillera Tribes fought for the rights of his tribesmen. Then in 1987, the Philippine Government created the Cordillera Administrative Region that includes Abra as a peace pact.
Major Industries:
Bamboo and Rattan craft making,
The natural dye industry
Loom weaving
Other popular industries are piggery and poultry, garment craft, and needlecraft

Tourist Attraction

In 1608, the Spanish friars attempted to establish a mission in Pudtol, an area inhabited by the Isneg people. Although Apayao was one of the first areas to be reached by the Spaniards in the Cordilleras , they only maintained a loose control over the territory as evidenced by several uprisings initiated by the Isneg. It was only in the lower part of Apayao that the Spaniards managed to establish their commandancia politico-militar.

On August 13, 1908, with the enactment of Act No. 1876 by the Philippine Commission, the Americans established the Lepanto-Bontoc Province which was composed of the sub-province of Apayao along with the Cordillera highlands.

On February 4, 1920, by virtue of Act. No. 2772, the Lepanto-Bontoc Province was reorganized into the Mountain Province which was composed of Apayao, Benguet, Bontoc, Ifugao and Kalinga.

On June 18, 1966, the Philippine Congress passed Republic Act 4695 providing for the division of the Mt. Province into four autonomous provinces. This resulted in the merging of Apayao and Kalinga into one province known as Kalinga-Apayao.

On July 15, 1987, Executive Order No. 220 was issued and signed by Her Excellency President Corazon C. Aquino, creating the Cordillera Administrative Region (CAR). The province of Kalinga-Apayao was made part of CAR territory.

On February 14, 1995, Republic Act No. 7878 authored by Congressman Elias K. Bulut of the lone district of Kalinga-Apayao was passed splitting the the province into two separate and regular provinces: Kalinga and Apayao. The inauguration of the new province of Apayao was held on Aug. 1, 1995.

Kabugao is legislated as the capital town of the province. Apayao consists of seven municipalities: Calanasan, Conner, Flora, Kabugao, Luna, Pudtol and Santa Marcela.
Baguio City
The area of the Cordillera mountains proved difficult to control by the Spaniards. From 1566 to 1665, they sent expeditions to conquer it but the rugged terrain and hostile indigenous population were major obstacles. The area was divided into politico-military commandancias but the Spaniards never able to fully subjugate it.
During the American rule, the entire area of the Cordilleras was made one large province in 1908, named Mountain Province. The first governor was Samuel Cane, and the town of Bontoc was made the capital. It was originally composed of the subprovinces of Amburayan, Apayao, Benguet, Bontoc, Ifugao, Kalinga and Lepanto. Amburayan and Lepanto were later added to the subprovinces of Bontoc and Benguet
Effective on April 7, 1967, the subprovinces were converted into 4 independent provinces: Benguet, Ifugao, Kalinga-Apayao and Mountain Province (corresponding to the former Bontoc subprovince). On June 15, 1987, Mountain Province became part of the Cordillera Administrative Region (CAR)
During Spanish occupation, government was established in Kiangan. The Spanish occupation ended with the outbreak of the Philippine Revolution. Ifugao used to be part of the former Mountain Province prior to its split into four separate and independent provinces. In 1905, Ifugao was made a sub-province of the old Mountain Province. Captain Pedro Bulan became the first native to become the first provincial governor.
Ifugao became the center of warfare in the last year of World War II when Gen. Yamashita launched his last stand against the American and Philippine Commonwealth forces at Mount Napulawan. He informally surrendered to Captain Grisham of the 6th US Army in the Philippines based in Kiangan, Ifugao, before he was flown to Camp John Hay where he formally surrendered.
Tourist Spot
Michelle Jerica Tobias
Cordillera- a name given by the Spanish Conquistadors when they first saw the mountain ranges. Meaning "knotted rope", the Spanish term refers to the jumbled rolls and dips of this long-range traversing the northern part of Luzon Island.
Mga lambak :

Lambak sa mga Ilog Chico
Lambak Trinidad
Ilog Agno
Ilog Chico

Ilog Magat
3 malalaking ilog
It is the country's only land-locked region.

The region is home to numerous indigenous tribes collectively called the Igorot.

Rich in ancient culture. It is the home of the indigenous tribe called Igorot.

Banaue Imbayah Festival
Tabuk Matagoan Festival
Hosts 6 major rivers that provide continuous water for irrigation and energy for northern Luzon.

Known as the "Natural Dye Capital of the Philippines“

Pinaing (Sacred Stones)

It is found in Dumayco, Penarrubia

In the hollow of a huge Balete Tree are found sacred stones which the village people call pinpinaing as symbols of the anito (spirits) of their ancestors.

Don Teodoro Brillantes Family Museum
It is a private museum which houses the collections and mementos of the Brillantes family with a strong manifestation of the Spanish culture.

Sibud-Sibud Cave is located along the newly constructed road of Tineg, Abra, Philippines.

Don Mariano Marcos Bridge along the Abra Kalinga National Road - third longest bridge in the Philippines

Abra River
This is the biggest, longest and most popular river among the numerous rivers criss-crossing the valleys of the province. It is where all rivers and streams congregate together. This is a perfect place for swimming and fishing.

Tugot ni Angalo
Translated as “Footprints of Angalo” (the Adam in Abra mythology)
Found in Kabaruyan, San Quintin.
a perpetual monument of Angalo.
The people believe this is a real giant footprint in San Quintin, around fifteen meters long, five meters wide and ten feet deep. On a clear day, it can be seen visibly even from a distance.

Arya Abra
Celebrated every March 9
Celebrates the creation of the province Cupped by a grand cultural parade depicting Abra in its historical stages starting, from the early pre-Spanish era to the present times.

Annual Apayao Day Celebration (February 14)
Cultural and sports activities as well as pageants.

A festival featuring ethnic songs, dances, and rituals.

Pudtol Town Fiesta (every last Thursday, Friday, and Saturday of May)
Agro-trade fair, pageant, and sports activities.

Apayao River
The unpolluted waters of Apayao River render fish and wildlife visible along its banks. Along the river can be found an array of picture-pretty waterfalls that are varying in sizes. Traversing six Apayao municipalities, from Calanasan to Luna, Apayao River is navigable by motorboat. 

Lizardo Brooks
Picturesque Lizardo Brooks is located in the municipality of Pudtol. 

Malabisin Lake and Underground River
A wealth of underwater beauties await you in scenic Malabisin. It is located in Paco Valley. 

Spanish Church
located at Barangay Mataguisa in Pudtol is considered to be one of the oldest in the Philippines.
Spanish Church Ruins
The site of these church ruins is located at Barangay Emilia in Pudtol.

The Lussok Crystal Cave is located in Luna, Apayao Philippines. It is a perfect example of the beauty of the natural wonders of the country. With its 3 room cave that holds various stalagmite formations, it’s a must see for anyone visiting Apayao

Major Industries
Garment craft
Food processing
Gifts and house wares
Agricultural support

Apayao is devoted to agricultural production, particularly food and industrial crops such as palay, corn, coffee, root crops and vegetables. Main fruits produce are lanzones, citrus, bananas and pineapples. Rice production totals 42,602 metric tons annually, as food crops totals 96,542 metric tons.
Economic activity is also based on livestock and poultry breeding such as swine, carabao, cattle, goat and sheep. Other additional investment includes manufacturing, food processing, furniture, crafts and house wares making.
La Trinidad
Salad Bowl of the Philippines
Early in the 19th century after the Spanish explorer Guillermo Galvey's report of his expedition, the Spanish government organized the mountain region into six commandancias politico militar", namely: Benguet in 1846, Lepanto in 1852, Bontoc in 1859, Amburayan in 1889, and Kayapa and Cabugaoan in 1891. The Province of Benguet, as now constituted, has portions which were parts of the Districts of Lepanto, Bontoc and Amburayan.

The early commandancias were divided into rancherias. The commandancia of Benguet was divided into 41 rancherias, with La Trinidad as the capital. It was named in honor of Don Galvey's wife Trinidad. The first "Kapitan" of Benguet was Pulito of Kafagway, now Baguio City, which was then a minor rancheria of about 20 houses.

As of 1899, the Katipunan came to Benguet and united the Igorots into establishing Benguet under the Government of the Republic of the Philippines. This was short lived for in the early 1900's, the American colonizers took over.

Under American Rule, local civil government were established on November 22, 1900 under Act No. 48 in the following townships of Benguet: Baguio, La Trinidad, Galiano, Itogon, Tublay, Atok, Kapangan, Balakbak, Palina, Ampusongan, Loo, Kabayan, Buguias, Adaoay, Bokod, Daclan, Sablan, Kibungan and Ambuklao. Under the same Act, the Provincial Government of Benguet was officially established.

When Act No. 1876 was passed on August 13, 1908, Benguet Province became a sub-province of Mountain Province. Under this Act, the sub-provinces embraced by Mountain Province were Amburayan, Apayao, Benguet, Bontoc, Ifugao, Kalinga and Lepanto. In the course of time, the original 19 townships of Benguet as embodied in Act No. 48 were reduced to 13 municipalities. The township of Baguio became a chartered city in 1909, creating in its place the township of Tuba. The townships of Ambuklao, Adaoay, Balakbak, Galiano, Palina and Loo were abolished under Executive Orders issued by the Governor-General of the Philippines.
Finally, under Republic Act No. 4695 enacted on June 18, 1966, Mountain Province was divided into four new Provinces, namely: Benguet, Mountain Province, Kalinga-Apayao, and Ifugao. Under this Act, Dennis Molintas, Sr. of Bokod became the first appointed Governor with Mayor Ben Palispis (1968-1986), Bantas Suanding (Officer-in-Charge, 1986-1988), Andres Bugnosen (1988-1992), Jaime Paul Panganiban (1992-1995), Raul M. Molintas (1995-2004), Borromeo P. Melchor ( 2004-2007) and Nestor B. Fongwan (2007 to present).

At present, Benguet is composed of 13 municipalities and 140 barangays. The province's municipalities are: Atok, Bakun, Bokod, Buguias, Itogon, Kabayan, Kapangan, Kibungan, La Trinidad, Mankayan, Sablan, Tuba and Tublay. According to the number of barangays, the capital town of La Trinidad has the most with 16 while Bakun and Kibungan have the least with 7 each.
Agriculture, mining, and tourism are the major industries in Benguet. Because of its temperate climate and high altitude, Benguet is an ideal place for producing vegetables.
Major crops include potatoes, Baguio beans, peas, strawberries, cabbage, lettuce, and carrots. Other agricultural-related activities are monggo processing, fruit preservation, peanut brittle manufacturing, broom making, basket weaving, and flower growing. Apisang (scientific name: Pittosporum resiniferum), a plant endemic to the Philippines, is also being grown in Kapangan and Kibungan towns as a potential alternative source of fuel and energy, rivaling the overhyped jatropha biofuel plant.
Mining is another major industry of Benguet, which is one of the country's leading gold producers.
Independent city within Benguet
Regional Center of CAR
Founded by the Americans in 1900 at the site of an Ibaloi village known as Kafagway.
The name of the city is derived from the word bagiw in Ibaloi meaning “Moss”

Baguio Cathedral
The rose-colored Baguio Catholic Cathedral, located on top of a hill in the heart of the city, is one of the more familiar and most visited landmarks of Baguio.
one of the most photographed buildings in the city.

Baguio Country Club
One of the oldest clubs in the Philippines
Originally Built as an exclusive playground to the elite and vacationing Americans.
An accommodation Facility that offers cottages and rooms
Home of the Baguio Country Club Rasin Bread

BenCab Museum
Located in Tuba, Benguet
houses our National Artist Ben Cabrera's art collection
This is also where BenCab lives and where his actual workshop is located.
Exhibits include exciting contemporary artists in Manila.

Camp John Hay
Originally a recreational camp for American soldiers.
It has become a popular destination for people who wish to see the pine forests in the city. It also boasts of a sprawling country club with a full 18-hole golf course, Restaurants and Shopping Centers

The Mansion
Used as residence of the president whenever he or she is in Baguio for their official visits and engagements.
The elaborate main gate of the Mansion is said to be a replica of that at Buckingham Palace in London.

Mines view Park
One of the most popular and most visited parks in the city.
The observation deck of the park offers a breathtaking panoramic view of Benguet's gold and copper mines
Has stalls selling native handicraft such as wood carvings, locally made silver products and jewelry, baskets, brooms, sweaters, blankets, and a variety of other items. There are also canteens, snack stores, and street vendors selling food and beverages
Philippine Military Academy
The premier military institution of the country and is the training ground for future officers of the Armed Forces of the Phillippines.
The 373-hectare compound in Loakan which is ten kilometers south of downtown Baguio City. Here it found its permanent home in a fort named after the young hero of the battle of Tirad Pass, Gen. Gregorio Del Pilar.
Fort Del Pilar is one of the most visited and photographed places in Baguio City.

Baguio Public Market
The market is located right at the lower end of Session Road and behind the Maharlika Center. It is here where they buy different souvenirs typical of Baguio. There are numerous other products and handicrafts sold at the Baguio public market which are brought in from other nearby provinces.

Session Road
The main thoroughfare of the city and the center of Baguio's commercial establishment.

Held during the month of February, created as a tribute to the city's flowers and as a way to rise up from the devastation of the 1990 Earthquake.Panagbenga / Baguio Flower Festival which is celebrated in February. The festival focuses on Baguio as the Flower Garden City of the North. Highlights include flower exhibits, lectures, garden tours, floral competition and a parade of floats.

Bugnay Village
A typical old Kalinga village with clustered Kalinga nipa huts where people still lead a traditional way of life amidst fast modernization.

Mt. Mating-oy Dinayao (Sleeping Beauty)
These fabled mountain ranges that border the municipalities of Tinglayan and Tanudan take the form of a sleeping lady supinely lying at its back.
A vantage view of the profile can be seen from Sungang or Basao.

Tinglayan Rice Terraces
These rice terraces appear like an amphitheater along the whole mountain slopes.

Lubo and Mangali Rice Terraces
They surround the villages of Lubo, and the best time to view them is during the planting season and when the rice is already ready for harvest.

Mabilong Weavers Village
The center of Kalinga’s ethnic weaving industry. As the village is situated along the road, souvenirs can be bought straight from the weavers.

A highlight of the province’s founding anniversary, this cultural festival showcases the life of the Kalingas through sports, crafts, and indigenous food.

Salidummay Festival
Features the ethnic songs, dances, and rituals of the municipality of Lubuagan, Kalinga.

The name “Kalinga” is believed to be derived from the Ibanag and Gaddang dialects, with the word “kalinga” meaning enemy, fighter, or headhunter. In the past, when tribal wars were prevalent, the inhabitants of Cagayan and Isabela considered the Kalingas as enemies since they conducted headhunting attached on the Ibanag and Gaddang territories. As such the name is considered a misnomer since it has no geographic or ethnic basis. Yet the term has become the official ethnic name accepted even by the natives themselves.
Mount Pulag (Kabayan)
This is the highest mountain peak in Luzon towering at an altitude of 9,640 feet above sea level and considered as the playground of the gods by local folks. It is home to many species of highland flora and fauna, including the dwarf bamboo, which covers its bald peak.

Kennon Road
More popularly known as Zig-zag Road, it is a breathtaking and impressive stretch of cemented and asphalted winding road. The upward climb reveals picturesque heights and lush greenery, which is best appreciated when viewed at the Kennon viewpoint pas the famous Lion's head.
Strawberry Picking in La Trinidad
An activity which aims to focus on the rich products of Benguet. Strawberry is a fruit so much associated with Baguio City and Benguet.
Balatoc Mines Tour
This is the first-ever in the Philippines underground mining tourist attraction primarily to showcase the thrilling and educational world of mining heritage of Itogon, Benguet. With its facilities and tunnels fully maintained and refurbished, the Benguet Gold Operations has opened its underground to tourists.

Colorado Falls (Tuba)
Located a short distance off Kennon Road, these falls have been the favorite watering hole of Baguio residents for some time. Three giant falls drop into a natural pool almost ten (10) feet at its deepest. Vacationist troop to this place during weekends.
Traditionally, a place where the council of elders hold various ceremonies, meetings, and happenings, which may be religious, social, or political in nature.
It is a public structure used as a dormitory by the bachelors, widowers, young boys, and visitors in the village.
A fireplace is built at the center and a wooden pole stands opposite it where heads of animals butchered and sacrificed are hung.

Hanging Coffins
Coffins arranged in high steep rock formations. 

Sagada Caves
The town sits in a limestone valley riddled with over 60 known caves. The Sagada caves feature shimmering underground streams with golden or silvery stalactite and stalagmite formations and cool natural pools inside. Sumaging, the largest, can be explored by anyone with a local guide.

Chom-no or Chonno
The grandest and most expensive wedding celebration, which usually happens once in four or five years, where the number of carabaos butchered reflect the economic status of the family; accompanied by much dancing and singing.

Ifugao is home to a thriving ancient culture and host to the famous rice terraces.
The famous terraces had been inscribed in UNESCO’s World Heritage List in 1995 as “a continuing cultural landscape”
The Ifugao native huts could probably be among the world’s first prefabricated houses that do not use a single nail or metal to fasten their parts.

Banaue Rice Terraces
Dubbed as the "Eight Wonder of the World," the Banaue Rice Terraces start from the base of the mountain range and reach up to several thousand feet high. It is said that their length, put end to end, would encircle half of the globe.
Made 2,000 years ago, these rice terraces manifest the engineering skill and ingenuity of the sturdy Ifugaos.
Streams and springs found in the mountains were tapped and channeled into irrigation canals that run downhill through the rice terraces. 

Batad Rice Terraces
Located at Barangay Batad in Banaue, these rice terraces are shaped like an amphitheater.

Bangaan Rice Terraces
The rice terraces cluster and village both showcase the typical Ifugao community, where the livelihood activities are within the surroundings

Mayoyao Rice Terraces
These rice terraces can be found in Mayoyao, 44 kilometers away from Poblacion, Banaue. The poblacion of Mayoyao lies in the midst of these rice terraces

Hapao Rice Terraces
More of Ifugao's world-famous stone-walled rice terraces can be found in the municipality of Hungduan.. 
Philippine War Memorial Shrine
The enormous memorial shrine was built to commemorate the end of World War II.
A concrete pyramid-type structure that resembles an oversized Ifugao native house, it depicts historical events, from Filipino opposition to Spanish rule to the Death March, and the role of the Ifugao and American troops in the defeat of General Yamashita.

Hanging Coffins
Coffins arranged in high steep rock formations. 

Sagada Caves
The town sits in a limestone valley riddled with over 60 known caves. The Sagada caves feature shimmering underground streams with golden or silvery stalactite and stalagmite formations and cool natural pools inside. Sumaging, the largest, can be explored by anyone with a local guide.
The Chico River is 174 kilometers long, spans several provinces and offers crazy dips and turns through gorges and canyons.
Adivay festival in Benguet which means "coming together of people to celebrate" is celebrated every month of November. The month-long activities highlights the Agro-industrial and trade fair which showcase the different products of Benguet.
Adivay Festival
Lang-ay Festival in Mountain Province celebrated every April 7. This is a week-long agro-industrial trade, tourism and cultural fair with tribal dances and songs. Lang-ay is a native term which describes the tradition of the people of Mountain Province to celebrate festivities, share happiness, foster family solidarity, hospitality and nurture friendship - all with a toast of home-brewed wine.
the Pinikpikan, a chicken dish that is rooted in the native ritual of reading signals from the gods to determine one's course of action. Sometimes humorously called 'Battered Chicken,' native chickens, smaller in variety with darker, tastier meat are beaten with a wooden and grilled over open fire
the Tapuey, sometimes called Tapuy or Tapey, a native wine made by fermenting rice with a special yeast in a clay or wooden jar using mountain spring water, resulting in a strong brew popular at cañaos or mountain feasts.

Foreigners dubbed this as Igorot Ham. It refers to salted pork and is cooked best with pinikpikan, legumes, or plain vegetables. It can also be deep fried and then in vinegar or hot sauce.
This is a Igorot counterpart of white wine served during dinner
The Cordillera region is the most diversified ethno-liguistic region in the Philippines with its major languages having sub-dialect variations. The topographic formation of the Cordillera mountain range, which has greatly influenced the upstream migration of peoples in the Cordillera into the hinterland, corresponds the various dialects pattern formation. The disparity in linguistic ethnicity however, did not form variation in cultural development as almost every Cordillera people shares similar cultural identity among different tribes.
Bontok - spoken in Bontoc
Ifugao - spoken in Ifugao
Isnag - spoken in Apayao
Balangao - spoken in Natonin
Extras of the Cordilleras is diverse; mining, agriculture, export processing zone, tourism are among economic activities in the different provinces of the region.
The region is abundant with mineral reserves. These include metallic ores such as gold, copper, silver, zinc, and non-metallic minerals like sand, gravel and sulfur. Mineral reserves are found in all the provinces. However, mining is concentrated in Benguet.
Its timber resources has dwindled since the introduction of slash-and-burn method of farming in all parts of the Cordillera mountain range.
Vegetable crop production is well developed in Benguet, rice production in Ifugao and Abra, corn production in Mountain Province, and Kalinga.
Baguio City and La Trinidad are considered as the industrial centers in the region. Baguio City hosts Baguio Export Processing Zone where operations of big companies like Texas Instruments, and MOOG are located. The city also hosts offshore and outsourcing companies operating call centers.
The primary growth centers of the region are Metro Baguio and the Eastern Cordillera Growth Corridor.
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