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Transcript of Jellyfish
Amy O'Connell Habitat There are over 2,000 different species of jelly fish, each one prefering slightly different conditions. Some species like warm, tropical waters, while others thrive in cooler areas of the ocean. Different jellyfish can be found anywhere from the surface to the ocean floor. Food Sources Jelly fish feed on a variety of ocean life, including fish, zooplankton, and other sea animals, but they do not hunt for their food. Instead, they swim through the water, using oral arms to sweep zoo plankton into their mouths. After a larger creature comes into contact with the jelly fish's tentacles, the tentacles bring the either stunned or killed animal into the jelly fish's mouth. Adaptations to Survive Many parts of the jelly fish are adaptations to it's environment. One very important adaptation is their tentacles. As I mentioned earlier,jelly fish use their tentacles to collect prey, but they also keep the jelly fish from becoming prey. When anything brushes against the tentacles, they automatically release a toxin to ward off predators. In addition, some species of jelly fish use bioluminescence to confuse both predators and prey. Physical Structure Tentacles Oral Arms Epidermis Gastrodermis Gastrovascular Cavity Mouth/anus The outermost layer of the top of the jellyfish The innermost layer of the top of the jellyfish A cavity inside the jellyfish that functions as a stomach and intestine The entrance and exit to the Gastrovascular Cavity for food and waste Arms reaching out from the mouth that sweep zooplankton into the mouth Extensions around the bottom of the jellyfish that release toxins when they are touched Location Jellyfish are located in every ocean, in virtually every different environment. Behavior Jellyfish move vertically through the water by opening and closing their bell (the top section of the jellyfish). They rely on the current to move horizontally, but sometimes get washed up onto the shore. Some species of jellyfish form blooms, large masses of jellyfish crowded together. Related Species The Portuguese man-o-war looks like a jellyfish, but is actually a colony of creatures known as siphonophores. Like jellyfish, these imposters have venomous stings. Growth and Development Jellyfish reproduce in different stages. In the adult stage, they can reproduce by releasing sperm and eggs into the water, forming a planula. The planula hooks on to the bottom of a smooth rock or other structure and grows into a polyp. During this stage, the organism reproduces through asexual reproduction. The polyps then transform into another stage, ephyra. After that, the organism grows into the adult medusa jellyfish. Competition The ocean is filled with over 230,000 different species living in the ocean, and like the jellyfish, a large amount of them eat zooplankton. All kinds of species, including everything from whales, to fish, to birds, rely on zooplankton to fill their nutritional needs. In this sense, the jellyfish has a wide range of competitors, but recent trends have given the jellyfish an upper hand. Overfishing in oceans has drastically reduced the amount of fish in the ocean, and provided the opportunity for jellyfish populations to explode. some scientists predict the possibility of the world becoming filled with "Gelatinous Oceans", dominated by jellyfish. Classification Kingdom: Phylum: Class: Order: Animalia Cnadaria Scyphozoa Coronatae (crown jellyfishes)
Stauromedusae (stalked jellyfishes) Scientist estimate there are about 2,000 different species of jellyfish, all belonging to the class Scyphozoa. From there, they branch off into different orders, families, genuses, and then species. Sources http://ocean.si.edu/blog/pinning-down-jellyfish http://science.time.com/2011/09/15/why-the-future-belongs-to-jellyfish/ http://animals.about.com/od/cnidarians/p/jellyfish.htm http://bioexpedition.com/jellyfish-habitat-and-distribution/ http://animal.discovery.com/marine-life/jellyfish-info.htm http://science.howstuffworks.com/zoology/marine-life/jellyfish.htm http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=how-do-jellyfish-reproduc http://1.bp.blogspot.com/-hVP1vrVG5WM/TboLtzoVs4I/AAAAAAAAAkw/vuzMUct4TX4/s1600/FindingNemo103.jpg http://us.123rf.com/400wm/400/400/bluehand/bluehand1112/bluehand111200001/11542052-jellyfish-on-black-background.jpg http://cdn1.arkive.org/media/70/70E43029-A543-4CB9-BF08-28D8606A2403/Presentation.Large/Free-swimming-larval-stage-or-ephyra-of-common-jellyfish-.jpg http://www.news.appstate.edu/wp-content/uploads/2009/03/Polyp.jpg http://scienceblogs.com/pharyngula/wp-content/blogs.dir/470/files/2012/04/i-66d7fea5cfe2b4b32726587da141b2ef-planula_larva.jpg http://www.whoi.edu/cms/images/oceanus/2006/7/2_27594.jpg http://en.es-static.us/upl/2012/04/jellyfish_map.jpeg http://graphics8.nytimes.com/images/2012/11/28/timestopics/jellyfish/jellyfish-sfSpan-v2.jpg One particular kind of jellyfish, the Australian Box Jellyfish, also known as the sea wasp, is among the deadliest animals in the world. It can have up to 60 tentacles, each measuring 15 feet long. Each tentacle has 5,000 stinging cells and enough toxin to kill 60 humans. http://www.livescience.com/11325-top-10-deadliest-animals.html