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Alexander the Great vs. Pericles
Transcript of Alexander the Great vs. Pericles
PERICLES Who was more important to
Greek history? ALEXANDER THE GREAT PERICLES WHO WAS ALEXANDER THE GREAT? (A.K.A ALEXANDER III OF MACEDON) Born in Pella, capital of Macedonia - July, 356 B.C.E.
Son of Philip II of Macedon and Olympias of Epirus.
Could have possibly been a demi-god (son of Zeus).
Became one of the best known leaders in world. ALEXANDER'S EARLY YEARS Alexander was taught by a couple of other mentors but at age 13, Philip II hired the great Greek philosopher, Aristotle, who taught him philosophy, politics, science, and ethics.
At age 14, Alexander tamed a horse named Bucephalus who became his companion throughout his battles.
At age 18, Alexander became the head of the cavalry.
His first battle was the battle of Chaeronea (led by him and his father). When Philip II was assassinated by one of his body guards in 336 B.C.E., Alexander took the throne shortly after (age 20).
Alexander started from what Phillip had begun and stretched the Empire from Asia Minor all the way to India. HOW DID ALEXANDER GET THAT FAR? In 334 B.C.E., Alexander led an army of 35 000 men to Persia - they were against 100 000 Persians.
Alexander defeated the soldiers who were on foot and King Darius fled to Babylon; leaving his soldiers to die.
After conquering Persia, he traveled to Egypt where he was crowned the Pharaoh.
He began building a city in Egypt and named it Alexandria - he later on built a dozen other cities (from Persia to India), naming them all Alexandria except for one; Bucephala (named after his horse).
He left many of his Greek generals in his new cities to spread the Greek culture and language.
In 331 B.C.E., King Darius came after Alexander again with 300, 000 men - Darius ended up fleeing once again.
Conquered 2 million square miles and never lost a battle. WHO WAS PERICLES? *aristocracy: a form of government in which power is held by those with hereditary/honorary title. PERICLES' EARLY YEARS THE RISE OF AN EMPIRE THE DELIAN LEAGUE Born in Athens, Greece - 495 B.C.E.
Born into an aristocratic family - son of Xanthippus and Agariste (grandson of Cleisthenes)
General, statesman, and leader of Athens - 461 to 430 B.C.E. After winning the war against Persia, Athens and many other city-states came together to create a navy in Delos to protect themselves from Persia invading once again.
Each state paid an annual tribute to maintain the navy.
Once they knew Persia was no longer a large threat, states wanted to leave the Delian League but were forced to stay - they still had to pay their annual tribute. THE REBUILDING OF ATHENS AND A NEW DEMOCRACY Pericles took the money that was given by the Delian League to rebuild Athens.
He beautified the city by restoring the acropolis, the Parthenon and many other temples around it - he also encouraged the arts by building a music hall called the Odeum.
In 451/450 B.C.E., he passed the Periclean citizenship law - he was unable to marry Aspasia because of it.
Pericles decreed that every citizen was able to participate in political events and was able to speak their opinion.
He introduced pay for all of the citizens that took part in serving the Council.
Since Pericles loved the arts, he also decreed that the citizens who were poor were able to attend theatrical performances for free.
Unfortunately, Alexander died from a fever in Babylon - June, 323 B.C.E. Since his family was wealthy, Pericles was able to get a full education - taught poetry, music, politics, etc.
Inherited a large amount of money at 17 years old.
To show he was wealthy, Pericles sponsored Aeschylus' play, 'The Persians' in the festival of Dionysus. THE BEGINNINGS OF PERICLES' CAREER Pericles joined the Assembly in 470 B.C.E.
He began working with Ephialtes and together they brought down the old council
After Ephialtes was assassinated and the current general at the time had been ostracized, Pericles became the leader in 461 B.C.E.
Pericles and his democratic party brought in many opportunities for citizens to participate in politics. THE PELOPONNESIAN WAR Spartans began to fear that Athens was becoming too powerful.
War broke out in 431 B.C.E. - Athens and the Delian League against Sparta and the Peloponnesian League
People in close areas began moving into Athens. Because there were so many people in one place, illnesses began multiplying which caused the plague of Athens - lasting two years.
The plague was the cause of Pericles' death in 430 B.C.E. Who do YOU think was more important to Greek history? Do you think that Alexander was an effective leader?
Which of Pericles' goals do you think has had the greatest impact on the modern world?