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Regulation and Evaluation of Drinking Water Contamination

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Lindsey Phelps

on 5 December 2013

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Transcript of Regulation and Evaluation of Drinking Water Contamination

Regulation and Evaluation of Hazards
Last time ...
Hazard: Drinking Water
Vinyl Chloride
Potential Source(s)
Source(s) for Vinyl
Process to remove
Real Life Scenarios
Real Life Scenarios
In Case of Disaster
Cost of Analysis
By Masoom Patel, Lindsey Phelps,
and Jenna Vavra
.Discussed hazardous outcomes
.Developed countries: Fluorosis, Cyanobacteria, Botulism
.Developing countries: Hep A, St. Louis Encephalitis, Malaria
Contaminants in
Drinking Water
.rivers, lakes, wells, city water
.could contain bacteria, viruses, other microorganisms, heavy metals, etc.
.Safe Drinking Water Act 1974
.Phase I Rule 1989
.Clean Water Act
.Clean Air Act
.discharge from plastic factories
.leaching from PVC pipes, esp. those before 1977
.used in various plastics
.readily migrates to groundwater
.packed tower aeration (air stripping)
+granular activated carbon
. activated carbon filters (Brita)
.reverse osmosis
.collect every 3 months (1993-95)
.now: "routinely" checked

.glass bottles: 60mL capacity
.glass headspace vials with Teflon-faced butyl rubber sealing discs + adhesive tape
.physical properties
.narcotic and anesthetic effects
.MCL 0.002 mg/L (or 2 ppb)
.MCLG 0.0
.cool, well ventilated area
.never above 125°F
.secured, upright, valve protection cap
.use within 24 hours
.gas chromatography with FID
.purge-and-trap GC
.flame ionization or electron capture
.GC/MS for confirmation

.headspace sampler .recorder
.chromatograph & columns .barometer
.temperature sensor
.headspace vial pre pressurizer
.fill vials with bubble free water
.seal vial carefully
.label accordingly

.analytical balance
.vial sealer
.syringe 100mL
Taiwan (1993):
.44 downstream wells from a hazardous
waste site
.concentrations up to 72.3 μg/liter
.Residents boiled water for 1 min
.Exposed to VC from inhalation of shower
.bottled water
.water safety plans
.natural filters
Finland (1995):
.Well water near PVC plant
.Up to 20,000 μg/liter detected

Osaka, Japan (2001):
.Heavily polluted shallow rivers
.56 μg/liter of VC along with VOCs
Foreign Regulations
MSDS Vinyl Chloride
How you will know
Gas Chromatography
and Mass Spectroscopy
Why should you care?
Vinyl chloride
Radionuclides Lead
Styrene Fluoride
PCBs Copper
Dioxin Arsenic
Benzene & Chloro-benzene
Chlorine Legionella
E.Coli Cryptospordium
.Japan Revision 2003
.Canada Regulation

.Malaysia, Norway, Sweden, U.S. - 1ppm TWA
.China, Mexico, New Zealand, Australia - 5ppm TWA
.EPA Method 107
.Wear rubber gloves
.Prepare four VCM/nitrogen standards
.Run standards twice
.Analytical Procedure
.Adjust flow rate, vial prepressurizer and
.Ignite flame in FID
.Set injection time, analysis time and
# of analysis/sample
Water supplier must notify:
EPA suggests:
.call water supplier
.call local health department about well water
New Jersey Tanker Spill
GC/MS Cont.
.Sample Treatment
.Four samples
.Add 1cc of water and seal vial ASAP
.Determine sample weight
.Condition vial for 1hr at 90°C
.Start GC
.Run samples according to manufacturer's
.View chromatogram and compare with
calibration curve
.GC/MS used to confirm results
.Cost of GC-FID analysis: $25/sample + $120
.Cost of packed tower aeration:
.original addition: $100,000 for plant with
10,000 gpd capacity
.operation and management cost: $10,000/year
.Cost of Brita: $15/pitcher + $8/filter
.Cost of reverse osmosis: ~$250 in home system
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