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Introduction to Advocacy Training

Lloyd Muriuki

on 25 February 2017

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Transcript of Advocacy



Ensuring good policies are implemented and enforced.

Essentially all about
Creating policies where they are needed when none exist.
Reforming harmful or ineffective policies.
The Advocacy Cycle
Analyse the Situation
Identify Advocacy Issue
Setting Goals and Objectives
Analyse policy and power
Identify targets and Influentials
Develop Messages
Build Added Strength
Develop and Implement action plan
Learn about advocacy concepts and advocacy vocabulary
Analyse policies that lie at the root of poverty and discrimination
See how advocacy can help you increase your impact
Devise a strategy to achieve your advocacy aims
Objectives of the Training
Rights Based Approach vs. Needs Based approach
What is advocacy?
Some concepts related to advocacy
The Advocacy Cycle
Basic advocacy tools
Identify the initial problem
and then answer why it is a problem five times. After the fifth ‘why’ you will have reached a real depth of understanding about the issue.
This helps go beyond the initial issues or those that are immediately apparent, to work out what is causing the problem
and where the most effective entry points are.
A first approximation: the ‘five
whys’ technique
Delving into the detail: Problem Trees
The focal problem or issue becomes the 'trunk' of the tree.
The causes of the focal problem - these become the roots
The consequences become the branches.
a) The 5 whys technique
b) Problem trees and Objective (Solution) trees
Social Audits
Remember the Problem Tree?
The focal problem is converted to the Main outcomes desired out of the Advocacy effort. Solving this problem is the main occupation of the Advocacy effort
Addressing the causes of the focal problem is the main thrust of all activities, including Advocacy activities. The Identified causes become the main outputs to which inputs are employed
The consequences become the branches and the main Objective of the advocacy effort. What do we want to see at the end?
Analysing the stakeholders of a problem
Develop the Influence and Interest Matrix
A well-constructed message can be the defining point of a very effective advocacy strategy while a poor messaging can distort, confuse and/or mislead. Multiple messages, vague messages or very complex ones can also dilute the impact of the Advocacy effort.
a) Should summarise the change you want to bring about
b) Should be simple, short and punchy, just one or 2 sentences
c) Should be jargon free
d) Should be Tailored for the audience
e) Should include a deadline for when the objective should be achieved
f) Should include the reasons why the change is important
g) Should include any action the audience would be asked to take in response
h) Should be memorable
i) Should be repeated until they gain influence
j) Should be consistent
k) Should combine the emotional and the rational

Tips on Good Messages
Statement + evidence + example + goal +action desired
The statement
is the central idea in the message, or the analysis/cause
The evidence,
supports the statement with (easily understood) facts and figures, using tailored language for clear communication

Put An example to add a human face when communicating that message.
The goal
highlights what we want to achieve. It is the result (or partial result) of the action desired.
The action desired
is what you want to do in support of reaching your defined objective(s) or goal(s). It is the solution (or partial solution) to the problem. This forms the core of an advocacy message and distinguishes it from many other types of communication

TIP: In some cases, such as TV interviews or unexpected encounters with a contact at an event, it is useful to have a one-sentence version of your primary message so that you can transmit the main point of the message in a matter of seconds.
The primary message should include the following:
Developing Management structures
Collaboration and Networking
Building capacity
Develop a Risk Assessment Plan
Introduction to Advocacy
5 Whys Technique
Problem Tree Analysis
Objective Trees
The provision of direct services like food, shelter and clothing, as well as medical care, water, education and so on
Expensive and unsustainable
The fundamentals behind the real causes of poverty are not addressed adequately within the approach
Disempowering to its "beneficiaries" by creating dependency
Needs Based Approach
Rights Based Approach
The Vienna Declaration and Programme of Action (25 June 1993): democracy, development, and respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms are interdependent and mutually reinforcing
All programmes of development co-operation, policies and technical assistance should further the realisation of human rights
Human rights standards guide all development cooperation and programming in all sectors and in all phases of the programming process
Development cooperation contributes to the development of the capacities of ‘duty-bearers’ to meet their obligations and/or of ‘rights-holders’ to claim their rights.
Rather than being passive recipients of services people are actors in development
People participation is central,
It is essential to build the capacity of both the rights holders and the duty bearers
What is Advocacy?
The deliberate process of influencing those who make policy decisions. As a strategy, it is aimed at influencing the choices and actions of those who make laws and regulations, and those who distribute resources and make other decisions that affect the well-being of many people
Advocacy can be direct, like asking a policy maker in person to take action, or indirect, such as trying to influence public opinion through the media.
Policy makers
Typically government officials or those with formal political power,

Can also be leaders in the private sector whose decisions and behaviour affect communities
Some Concepts related to Advocacy
The Advocacy Cycle
Advocacy is very dynamic
Thus, making the use of composite logical models like the Logical Framework model not as effective in managing and monitoring the processes
The steps are not bound by strict convention
Organizations often skip some steps, take longer in others or find themselves returning to steps they had previously passed
Sequence of steps may also vary dependent on the capacity of the organization to carry out key activities
Key activities (depicted as being in the centre of the cycle) are essentially continuous and somewhat ubiquitous (research, Monitoring and Evaluation and resource mobilization)
End of Session 1.
Question Time
Session 2
the problem is that we have an inefficient procurement system there is no law requiring competitive bidding across government’
1. Why does this matter?
Without this law there is an incentive not to use competitive bidding
in procurement deals.
2. Why does 1. matter?
Without this incentive, most procurement deals are currently done through sole source methods.
3. Why does 2. matter?
Sole source methods can increase corruption and lead to higher procurement costs and lower quality.
4. Why does 3. matter?
We have evidence that many procurement deals have been overly costly and goods are poorly provided.
5. Why does 4. matter?

AN Example
A problem is NOT the absence of a solution. It is an existing negative situation stated as a negative condition,
Eg. “Crops infected with pest” and NOT “Lack of Pesticide”
Problems should be confined to one per statement
Eg. “Inadequate size and quality of health care” are two problems
Practical steps in generating a Problem Tree: (Group Task)
In your groups, you have been provided with practical examples from research that has taken place in real life situations. Assume you represent an assembled team of experts, community members etc. The team will critically and objectively analyse the situation to establish:-
i. The Problem:
a. Primary cause of the problem:
b. Secondary causes of the problem:
c. Tertiary causes of the problem .
ii. Consequences :

Then, Building a problem tree and remember to Respond correctly to “BUT WHY?” to each step!
Presentations and Discussions
What if there is need to look further into the alleged discrepancies (from the Problem Tree process) and build evidence with the hope of reversing the situation, or with the desire to ignite
a people-driven rethink of the structures around the service?

For this nature of intervention, it is recommended to implement
Social Audits
Let's Discuss what we just watched on Social Audits for a short while. What are the Key elements of the activity?
Stakeholder Analysis
Creating powerful Messages
Identification of target audiences
Devising a National Movement Strategy
Gather Evidence
Monitor and Evaluate
Mobilise Resources
Continuous and ubiquitous activities
High-cost, low-quality procurement is undermining the provision of key services across government. This process of the initial specification of the problem – the need to introduce an externally defined ‘best practice’ to mandate competitive bidding – is in fact prompted by the need to improve the cost and quality of procurement. The latter problem is much more complex but is the root cause that needs solving. However, it is unlikely to be addressed by simply mandating the use of competitive bidding.
Some Key Definitions to remember
Positive and negative long-term effects on identifiable population groups produced by a development intervention, directly or indirectly, intended or unintended. These effects can be economic, socio-cultural, institutional, environmental, technological or of other types and should have somerelationship to the MDGs and national development goals.
The intended or achieved short-term and medium-term effects of an intervention, responding to national priorities and local needs . Outcomes represent changes in development conditions that occur between the completion of outputs and the achievement of impact
The financial, human, material, technological and information resources used for development interventions
The products and services that result from the completion of activities within a development intervention within the control of the organization.
{United Nations Development Group Results-Based Management Handbook }
Practical steps in developing Project Goals from an Objective Tree: (Group Task)
In your groups, develop Objective/Solution Trees based on the discussions from the previous exercise on Problem Trees. From your discussions, list the Impact, Outcomes and outputs required to have a successful Advocacy project based on the chosen S2C thematic area and supported by the evidence drawn from the Problem Tree – Solution Tree exercises.

Let's Discuss your Objectives
Which branch of government holds the key to change?
Where and how does political debate occur?
What role do informal politics play?
Is there really capacity to make change happen?
How do external forces influence change?
Key Considerations
I. Clarify the project’s overall objective using the ‘five whys’ process and the Problem/Solutions Tree
II. List all the stakeholders you can think of: it is helpful to put each one on a sticky note.
III. Draw the stakeholder matrix on a large sheet of paper, and place the sticky notes on the map. Begin by working out which stakeholder represents the extreme of each quadrant, and work from there. Your choice of where to place them on the map should be informed by some form of evidence. You could write the evidence on the back of the note. If you are working in distinct regions or countries, it will be helpful to construct different matrices for each one.
IV. Go through the sticky notes and work out if you need to break any of them down to identify specific teams or individuals who have different degrees of interest or influence
V. Use the table below to fill in the information to guide in Stakeholder analysis and targetting

Let's look at your Stakeholder Analyses
Session 3
Develop a Communications strategy
Communications approach 1: encouraging a particular policy position
a) Inside-track
direct interactions with decision makers, allies and other key actors.
participation in negotiations, meetings, direct communications with government ministers
informal, face-to-face discussions with close collaborators and other contacts
b) Outside-track
target large numbers of individuals, or the political debate on an issue, through public messaging and campaigning.
build public support for a new policy, use public meetings and speeches to communicate the rationale for a proposed reform and/or use television and radio to raise public awareness of an issue.
Communications approach 2: knowledge-brokering
a) Informing and translating
Rather than expecting key audiences to come to you, you push information to them, through the existing channels that they already use
b) Linking
Seeking out known experts to advice on particular problems, for instance those which the policy-maker has outlined through briefings and roundtables
c) Matchmaking
Introducing people to others they usually would not meet. This enriches the perspectives a policymaker can draw on, possibly changing the framing of the policy question. This may be appropriate when there is a need to broaden policy-makers’ horizons or to spot potential synergies with other issues to create a more strategic overview
Task: Having identified your Key targets, draw out the table below on a flipchart and use the information from your target identification, and the knowledge you now have on messaging, to develop targeted messages for your advocacy campaign
consolidate the whole picture and develop an engagement strategy which you are to implement in your National Movements.

Strategy Check List:
Your policy-influencing objective(s);
The forces for and against change and your theory of how change will happen;
The outcomes you would expect, like and love to see;
The communications activities you will undertake to achieve them;
Your communications strategy;
The resources available to you to implement your engagement strategy.

The ROMA tool suggests nine possible outcomes to align with each stakeholder or group of stakeholders. For each stakeholder, consider which of the nine outcomes in need to be addressed. Focus only on the top three priorities for each stakeholder; any more than that will become confusing.
Adapted from Keck and Sikkink (1998) and Steven (2007)
Let us look at our communication plans
Let's share our ideas on Messaging, Theories of Change and How to engage
Session 4: Targeting the Duty Bearers and Stakeholders
Session 5: Let us Engage
Key elements in developing a Theory of Change
Determine the following possible outcomes and changes and assign each to the identified set of stakeholders from the Stakeholder Analysis process:
• Those you expect to see
• Those you would like to see
• Those you would love to see
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