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History of Pharmacy Practice
Transcript of History of Pharmacy Practice
History of Pharmacy Practice
The Age of Antiquity
The Middle Ages
500 CE – 1500CE known as the dark ages. Took place in the practice of pharmacy
- 16th and 17th century (1500-1600 CE)
- Scientific advancements
- Expanded exploration (discovery of the New World)
The 19th Century
American pharmacy was being established
Early 1800’s, pharmacist were faced with two major threats; deterioration of the practice of pharmacy and a discriminatory classification by the university of Pennsylvania medical faculty.
On March 13, the pharmacists voted to form a Philadelphia college of pharmacy, a school with a self-policing board.
On October 1852 Daniel smith, William Procter Jr., and 20 delegates founded the American pharmaceutical association to meet the needs for better
Scientific discoveries, drugs development. Early 1900s government began to regulate practice.
Pharmacy technician has been dated back to Echelonst ancient Egypt but did not evolve significantly until the late 20th century. in early and mid 1990's family owned business where mostly all knowledge was acquired through passed down basics and learned on the job but no real standardized training until developed by the united states military. Since then pharmacy technicians became more defined and began to play a role in the government of state pharmacy associations and state boards of pharmacy.
Ancient humans, most commonly referred as cavemen, applied cool water, leaves, or mud to themselves and by trial and error, learned which remedy worked best and shared their knowledge.
The American Council on Pharmaceutical Education
· American Council on Pharmaceutical Education (ACPE): institute requirements for pharmacy education.
· ACPE entrenched requirements for baccalaureate degree in pharmacy
· Added doctor of pharmacy requirements as an alternative..
· In 2003 the agency changed the name to Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education (ACPE)
The 18th Century
The monks will use wild herd & even grow them in their own garden. Till this day they still use herds.
The First Apothecaries
In the eight century the first drug store was open in Baghdad.
The Arads use their own natural resources (distilled waters, develop syrups)
Africans also got the idea from them & also the Western Europe where more pharmacist began to appear ..
1240 CE Sicily & southern Italy were separate from medicine
The First Pharmacopoeia
a book, especially an official publication, containing a list of medicinal drugs with their effects and directions for their use
America’s First Female Pharmacist- An established apothecary shop in Philadelphia became a leading retail store, one of the larger-scale chemical manufacturers, a training school for pharmacist, & and important supply depot during the American Revolution. Eventually Elizabeth Marshall inherited the apothecary shop becoming the head pharmacist.
First Anglo-Saxon Organization for Pharmacist
- In the British Isles, the Guild of Grocers, which represented shopkeepers monopolized this trade and maintained jurisdiction over the apothecaries.
- In 1617 King James I granted them a charter to for a separate company known as the “master, wardens and society of the art and mystery of the Apothecaries of the city of London”
First Apothecary in the American Colonies
- John Winthrop, first governor of Massachusetts Bay Colony and the founder of Boston got advice from English apothecaries and physicians when he was unable to persuade professionals to emigrate from Britain to the colony
- In 1640, he began providing apothecary products by selling imported drugs.
The Traditional Era: 1900-1930’s
: formulating and dispensing drugs developed from natural sources.
The Scientific Era: 1930’s: practice for pharmacy began to take a more scientific approach.
· Large number of new drugs,
· drugs tested on human body
· new regulations
· mass production
The Clinical Era: 1960’s: pharmacy experience a shift practice:
· drug information
· suggestions for patients
The Pharmaceutical Care Era: end of 20th century, practice of pharmacy shifted into three prior eras:
· Traditional, Scientific, and clinical era: Pharmaceutical Care
Evolution of the Pharmacists Role
· The role of a pharmacist evolved through four stages: the traditional era, the scientific era, the clinical era, and the pharmaceutical care era.
Every year the people from Lamnos would dig clay from a pit on a hillside, washed, refined, shaped into uniform tablets, sealed, sun-dried, and distributed commercially.
Hippocrates was an ancient Greek physician, philosopher, and professor. he was the father of medicine and published more than 70 writings related to the practice of medicine
* Apothecary- Latin term for pharmacist
* Origin of pharmacy is traced down to the discoveries of ancient humans
* Elizabeth Marshall- first female pharmacist
* Morgan- supported the use of writer prescription
* Craigie- first Apothecary General
* Pharmacy technicians- referred to as clerks, assistants, or supportive personnel
* William Procter Jr.- father of American pharmacy
* United States pharmacopoeia- first book of drug standards
* Gregor Mendel- father of modern genetics
a technique that uses living things to make or modify specific products
the study of individual genetic differences in response to drug therapy
How has medicine and pharmacy practice advanced since it first started?