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Transcript of Computer Fundamentals
Pangilinan, Irish Leslie
Tolentino, Jella Divina The System Unit MOTHERBOARD •The motherboard is the main circuit board inside your PC.
•The motherboard is one big communication highway.
Its purpose inside your PC is to provide a platform for all the other components and peripherals to talk to each other. • Box-like case that contains computer’s electronic components Integrated Components Inside What is the Motherboard? The chipset The chipset is an electronic circuit whose job is to coordinate data transfers between the various components of the computer (including the processor and memory). The CMOS clock and battery The real time clock (or RTC for short) is a circuit which synchronises system signals.
It vibrates and gives off pulses (called timer ticks) in order to keep the system elements running on the same time. The BIOS The BIOS (Basic Input/Output System) is the basic program used as an interface between the operating system and the motherboard. The BIOS is stored in ROM (read-only memory, which can not be rewritten), so it uses data contained within the CMOS to find out what the system's hardware configuration is. The processor socket refers more specifically to a square-shaped connector with many small connectors into which the processor is directly inserted. Empty Socket Since the processor releases heat, it is necessary to dissipate it, to keep the circuits from melting. This is why it is generally mounted atop a heat sink (sometimes called a cooler or radiator), which is made of a metal which conducts heat well (copper or aluminium) in order to increase the microprocessor's heat transfer surface. Heat Sink RAM
is used to store data while the computer is running; however, its contents are wiped out as soon as the computer is switched off or restarted, as opposed to mass storage devices such as hard drives, which keep information safe even while turned off. This is why RAM is called "volatile." Expansion slots Expansion slots are compartments into which expansion cards can be inserted. These are cards which give the computer new features or increased performance. There are several types of slots:
ISA slots (Industry Standard Architecture): For inserting ISA slots. The slowest ones are 16-bit.
VLB slots (Vesa Local Bus): Bus formerly used for installing graphics cards.
PCI slot (Peripheral Component InterConnect): used for connecting PCI cards, which are much faster than ISA cards and run on 32 bits
AGP slot (Accelerated Graphic Port): A fast port for a graphics card.
PCI Express slot (Peripheral Component InterConnect Express): Faster bus architecture than AGP and PCI buses.
AMR slot (Audio Modem Riser): This type of slot is used for connecting mini-cards to PCs which are built for it. The input-output connectors. The motherboard has a certain number of input/output sockets found on the rear panel.
A serial port, for connecting old peripherals;
A parallel port, mainly for connecting old printers;
USB ports (1.1, low-speed, or 2.0, high-speed), for connecting more recent peripherals;
RJ45 connector (called LAN or ethernet port) used for connecting the computer to a network. It corresponds to a network card integrated into the motherboard;
VGA connector (called SUB-D15), for connecting a monitor. This connector interfaces with the built-in graphics card;
Audio plugs (Line-In, Line-Out and microphone), for connecting sound speakers or a hi-fi system, as well as a microphone. This connector interfaces with the built-in sound card; Most motherboards have the following connectors: CD-ROM or
DVD Drive is a pre-pressed compact disc that contains data accessible to, but not writable by, a computer for data storage and music playback. Hard Drive also known as a hard disk drive or HDD, is a fundamental part of modern computers. The hard drive is where all of your programs and files are stored, so if the drive is damaged for some reason, you will lose everything on your computer. Hard Drive Sound Card A sound card is an internal computer component that processes audio files in order to provide high-quality playback through computer speakers.
A sound card plays voice as well as music files, and can handle various audio file formats including .wav, .mp3 and .cda to name but a few. Close-up view of a Sound Card Network Card A network card (also called a Network Adapter or Network Interface Card, or NIC for short) acts as the interface between a computer and a network cable.
The purpose of the network card is to prepare, send, and control data on the network. Network Card IDE Cables IDE stands for Integrated Device, (or Drive)
Most of these wires are used to transfer data between the motherboard and the drives.
IDE cables is one of the most used standard electronic interface cables to connect a motherboard’s data bus and a computer’s disk drive or other storage media. IDE Cable Floppy Cable
Floppy cable The floppy disk interface uses what is likely the strangest cable of all those in PCs today.
It is similar to the standard IDE cable in that it is usually a flat, gray ribbon cable.
The floppy cable has 34 wires. Floppy Disk Drive A floppy disk drive is a hardware device that reads one of the first types of portable data storage media like floppy diskettes, also known as floppy disks. Power Supply It is the component that supplies power to a computer.
is designed to convert general-purpose alternating current (AC) electric power from 220V to usable low- voltage direct current (DC) power for the internal components of the computer.
The more powerful the computer, the more watts it can provide to components. There are several types of socket, but only 2 of them are really used. PGA LGA Central Processing Unit (CPU) CPUs have three basic parts:
1. The Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU)
* does all of the mathematics in a computer
* does all of the logic comparisons of values
2. The Control Unit
* directs the flow of information into the CPU and/or memory or storage
* controls which instructions the CPU will do next
* Used to store data and instructions inside the processor
* Size of the registers can affect the speed and performance of the processor Memory ROM 1. Stores instructions that are used by the CPU
2. The instructions in ROM can not usually be changed
3. The instructions in ROM are nonvolatile.
They stay in ROM even when the computer is turned off.
4. Access to information is random access. Read Only Memory Random Access Memory ROM Storage Devices *End*