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Summer Unit 3 Technology, Social Media & Ink on Paper

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Ginny Whitehouse

on 6 October 2016

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Transcript of Summer Unit 3 Technology, Social Media & Ink on Paper

Define the problem briefly
Describe the solution briefly
List the main stregths
List the main weaknesses
List the top opportunities
List the main threats
Add some details
Add some details
Add some details
How will you get the message out?
List top competitors
Team ready
Break even
Beta out
Beginning with ink
Johannes Gutenberg
1450 Moveable Type
Feudal Europe
Penny Press
America 1830s
Decline of Print Media
Rise of
Telling Stories
Investigative Journalism
Books to Ebooks
Media Convergence
Early Film
What impact has each had on the publishing industry:
1. Wikipedia
2. Amazon.com
3. Harry Potter
Media Convergence Timeline
Zooming User Interface
Adam Somlai-Fischer invents Prezi
Tracking Michelle on Flickr
Debate Fact Check
Cool Tools
Cool Sites
Search Engines
the business of inducing the public to have understanding for and goodwill toward a person, firm, or institution; also : the degree of understanding and goodwill achieved
Definition of public relations
Social media is digital content and interaction that is created by and between people.
Definition of social media
Ludlow Massacre
Great Social Media PR Campaigns
Burger King's Subservient Chicken
Galaxy Note
(After Old Spice Man's Man)
Point: Bigger, Agile Screen
Directly addresses "Too Big"
Appears on Tosh.O
Featured in IntoMobile, Android Community, Gizmodo all before hits the American market
2 million orders after video released
Twitter = Create the Hashtag
More Social Media Tools
The NYT Social Editor says they spend lots of time
coming up with powerful hashtags. Example: #stevejobslegacy
They were able to pull celebrity tweets and other good posts
from their follow up story because they created a strong
hashtag that others used.
The New York Times spends lots of time coming up with powerful hashtags. Example: #stevejobslegacy
They were able to pull celebrity tweets and other good posts from their follow up story because they created a strong hashtag that others used.
Organizing Tweets
Fact checking
Numerous news organizations asked followers to tweet fact check questions during the Republican Debates
Gaming to Draw
customers and fans
Pinterest Shifts
Goes from posting cool stuff to posting your own stuff
Digital Millennium Copyright Act
Imagine yourself in Medieval Europe, say Germany in 1400. Things are pretty tough … you have to rely on your betters and word of mouth to get information. Your priest would read out the news at the beginning of the church service, and he would probably be the only one for miles who could actually read. And even then, that priest probably did not have a Bible. The only folks who went to school had to have lots of money and time on their hands. Any kind of education was expensive and so most people didn’t often bother. If for some reason you did go to the university, there wouldn’t be much use for books. You would go listen to lectures, then perhaps repeat what you heard to a tutor. You wouldn’t have much access to libraries … most everything would be oral. Information was controlled by the church and the aristocracy … limiting access to information helped them to keep them in power. Scribes had to write books by hand. In fact, one scribe working 30 or 40 years might make 100 copies of a book. Suddenly, a hundred books could be completed by a single printer in a month.
Gutenberg’s little invention of movable type was a pretty big deal. The Chinese actually had been working with movable type for 400 years earlier. But for whatever reason, nothing had really been done before in Europe … that is until around 1450. Gutenberg devised an alloy of lead, tin and antinomy that would melt at low temperature, cast well in the die, and be durable in the press. It was then possible to use and reuse the separate pieces of type, as long as the metal in which they were cast did not wear down, simply by arranging them in the desired order.
Of the original 200 Latin Bibles, about 50 survive today. Everything pretty much across Europe was printed in Latin because that was the common language of religion. Both the church and the aristocracy at first ignored the Gutenberg product … after all, it was just ugly. Handwritten books were much prettier. But then folks started printing things in their own local languages. Suddenly books became more available and more people could learn to read … if they learned to read then they realized that they could start thinking for themselves. What a dangerous idea! The famous Inquisition of 1487 happened as a direct result of the printing press … suddenly ideas couldn’t be controlled so easily. By 1500 … within a single lifetime … books spread like wildfire across Europe. More than 9 million books were available on 35,000 topics … From healing herbs to midwifery to religion. Information spread with the new technology and the stories people told changed them.
First came the Reformation spread by Martin Luther, then the Renaissance spreading new ideas about science. And through this new information, something called individualism developed … an individual could develop ideas and think for him and herself. Those little pieces of metal that made up the type are the very things that led to you being able to go to college. Books were a pretty big deal. Knowledge spread. But to actually have information in your own home … well, that was pretty rare. Folks had religious texts but very rarely much more than that. Information was still spread around and certainly more people could learn to read … but reading still was pretty exceptional.
Over the next 400 years, some changes were happening across Europe and the United States. Lots and lots of people moved to the cities by the beginning of the 1800s? Why … remember power was moving from the king to a broader spread of people. And instead of the nations relying on farming to build the economy, gradually nations started building on manufacturing. So rather than having lots of people spread out in farms, folks came to the cities to look for work. And then they came in droves to the United States looking for a better life. Immigrants filled East Coast cities and took the hard jobs.
Just a recap of our last unit … Up till this point, newspapers were mostly weekly affairs advocating political positions. There was no such thing as a news organization with a neutral position. Objectivity wasn’t a journalism value. And newspapers were pretty expensive. That’s when Benjamin Day came on a radical idea. Day created the New York Sun in 1833. First and foremost it was daily … the idea of fresh current news was stunning. The paper itself was cheap at the time so he could print a lot of it. He knew his target market and what they wanted to read… crime, court reports, stories about average people. Within three years, he was selling 30,000 copies a day. He didn’t send his paper through the mail … that would have driven up the cost and made it late. Lots of workers frankly didn’t have mail delivery in tenement housing. Instead he hired news boys to sell it on the street corner. This information for the masses was supposed to shed new light, that’s why he called it the Sun. Lots of penny presses followed. Their content was pretty sordid, such as trials of prostitutes accused of murder. But advertisers came out of the woodwork because they had sudden access to a big audience.
We also saw the rise of general interest magazines. Like newspapers, they were designed to reach a wide audience. Saturday Evening Post publishers claim to be able to date their magazine back to Benjamin Franklin … in fact their first edition was published on Franklin’s press in 1821. By 1908, it had a million readers. By 1920, it’s advertising revenue was over $50 million per year making it the greatest grossing published product of its time. It offered 20 stories at least in over 200 pages each addition and it only charged a nickel.
Photography made a huge leap forward with the development of the chemical industry. The National Geographic Society had been already putting out its magazine for nearly a century. (What type of media is that?) Advances in photography introduced pictures and places that most Americans had only imagined.
Life Magazine started out as a general interest magazine but gradually came about to focus on photography, particularly during World War II. The regular magazine itself folded in 1970s along with many others of its kind. But you will see regular resurgence of Life Photo editions every year or decade.
Demassification is key here. You have to create a product that a particular audience wants … such as celebrity news … Think about the immersion analysis in television with the show Dirty Jobs. It was successful because it reached the right audience. It continues its appeal with the spin-off Somebody's Got to Do It. Magazines are the same way…. You have to reach the right audience. Successful magazines are the ones who can work across multiple platforms and reach their audience well.
Newspapers simply were never able to pull that off after the internet. The challenge we see here is that this news business model was one that needs definition. Remember the primary purpose of for-profit media is to provide an audience. What if the audience goes somewhere else. Let’s look at the print media’ decline.
Remember the business model that depends on advertising is in serious trouble if it doesn’t diversify its profit base. Advertisers want an audience. Newspapers were built on the mass audience model…the more people you get into the room then the bigger the audience you can deliver.
Throughout the 20th Century, we saw the development of newspaper chains, such as Gannett. Individual papers couldn’t fly alone, then even newspaper chains could not make it. USAToday was built as a national newspaper product … it’s not doing bad. But it even is designed to look like a TV. It has found its audience and advertisers …
Perhaps though the biggest death nail comes from the internet generally and Craig’s List specifically. Your parents’ wanted to sell something a decade ago… they put an ad in the paper. You want to sell some now … you put it on Craig’s List. Much of newspapers’ ad revenue came from those classifieds.
Advances in photography that took place in the mid-1800s made photography possible. Let’s look at some of the first war photographs ever produced. Most of these were taken by Photographer Matthew Brady.
Take a break for a second and grab a drink of choice. Write down four or five things you know about the Civil War.
What did you learn about the Civil War from these photographs? The power and the emotion comes through with intensity. The reality is however, mass audiences didn’t get to see this photographs until much, much later. In fact only the stillest of pictures could be taken … no stop action, no flash. But that changed with advances in chemistry. By the turn of the last century, magazines and newspapers were using photography as part of mass publications. Pictures are worth a thousand words. A photographer by the name of Jacob Riis put together for McClure’s magazine a series called how the other half lives. He shot pictures of immigrants in overcrowded tenement housing. This video lasts just under 10 minutes. It is very powerful and you will want to watch the whole thing.
The reality is however, mass audiences didn’t get to see this photographs until much, much later. In fact only the stillest of pictures could be taken … no stop action, no flash. But that changed with advances in chemistry. By the turn of the last century, magazines and newspapers were using photography as part of mass publications. Pictures are worth a thousand words. A photographer by the name of Jacob Riis put together for McClure’s magazine a series called how the other half lives. He shot pictures of immigrants in overcrowded tenement housing. Let’s look at that as well. Show:
You can see that technology allowed for the stories …Remember publications for mass audiences meant that information could get out cheaply so that more people could afford them. But it also meant that minority voices could publish information that could be dissiminated cheaply … people who previously had no voices could get their stories told. African American journalist Ida B Wells wrote stories exposing mob lynching. She was born in Mississippi a month before the Emancipation Proclamation. She helped found the Memphis Free Speech and Headlight in 1890, one the earliest black newspapers. In 1882, a dear friend, a local store owner, was lynched by a mob. She wrote about his murder and the frightening rise of lynching. These were not stories you often read in the daily papers written for whites. Her cheaply produced newspaper meant new voices in the marketplace. Read a bit more about her history. Key facts are on page 25:
Ida B. Wells
McClure’s Magazine was part of the rise of magazines at the turn of the last century that latched on to the mass communication business model. They embraced investigative journalism and President Teddy Roosevelt called them muckrackers. In other words, journalists looking for dirt. Interest in investigative journalism waned in war time. In times of peace, you could have the New York Times investigate Boss Tweed. In times war, most newspapers focused on war correspondence. In these intermitent periods you get fascinating stories about exposure of corruption and abuse of power. Lincoln Steffens was the editor of McClure’s and his series of articles became known as the Shame of the Cities. He wrote: "The spirit of graft and lawlessness is the spirit of America." Steffens article on St. Louis was called in fact “Tweed of St. Louis."
Lincoln Steffens
Ida Tarbell: One of the muckrackers you should know. From documents supplied by a high-minded shipping clerk at Standard Oil, Tarbell learned that Rockefeller agents had used inside information of their competitors' shipping itineraries to sidetrack cars of crude oil en route. (That meant they tried to hurt competitors by keeping their supply from getting to its destination.) The Tarbell series ran for two years, and by 1906 Standard Oil was fighting 14 separate antitrust suits. A federal investigation headed by James R. Garfield, son of the slain President, substantially corroborated Tarbell's charges and moved President Theodore Roosevelt to call for the dismantling of the giant trust. This took place in 1911 with the Supreme Court decision which declared Standard Oil guilty of attempting "to drive others from the field and exclude them from their right to trade." Today, four of the eight largest oil companies in the world-Exxon, Standard Oil of California (Chevron), Mobil, and Standard Oil of Indiana (American)-are products of this fragmenting of John D. Rockefeller's Standard Oil Trust. Tarbell’s reporting led to a dramatic change in corporate America. She also wrote an incredible biography of Abraham Lincoln published in serial form for McClure’s magazine. Singlehandedly, she caused the magazine's subscriptions to double.
Ida Tarbell
Jacob Riis
The No. 1 newspaper in New Orleans announced it was going from a daily print edition to a heavier focus online. People still want news .... they still want journalism ... they just want it in a new form.
The advancement of technology helped people hear each other's stories in new ways. The same chemical technology that gave Jacob Riis the ability to shoot pictures in dark places also allowed for motion picture film. Movie technology was pretty new when the first movie house opened in Paris in 1895. A series of innovations in the decade before had to take place. George Eastman had to develop the Kodak celluloid film. William Dickson took that film and created a camera that could take 16 pictures a second. Thomas Edison put it all together by 1891 to create a film production box so you could see the pictures. But it wasn’t that impressive. This was first copyrighted film and it was taken with Edison's Kinetoscopic Record.
The Luminere brother’s took Edison’s box and put it front of really big light bulb in that Paris movie house … And here is what people paid good money for …
The world was excited about film and the first blockbuster was The Birth of a Nation, released in 1919. It is incredibly disturbing and racist portrait of the birth of the KKK. This next clip is one of the final scenes. Freed slaves and Union soldiers (some whites in black face) attempt an assault when the Klan comes in to rescue. It's quite racist and reflects the times.
Alastair MacIntyre came up a theory called narrative formation: "We come to know who we are by the stories we tell." Technology has shaped the way we tell stories and therefore shaped the stories themselves.
The path to online information has evolved rapidly over the past four decades. People still want and need news that journalism provides, but the form continues to change in the way all information is shared
The internet as we know it now started out as the Advanced Research Projects Agency Network (ARPANET) of the U.S. Department of Defense. It started out as sort of computer bomb shelter. If one part of the world blew up, then other computers could still talk to each other and function. The scientists though who created it said really they just wanted more computer storage and the military was willing to fund it.
Back then, computers filled whole buildings and special cooling systems had to be created. Computer scientists at UCLA and Stanford set out to make the first data transfer. Stanford started to type "log in" but only to got to "g" before the computer crashed.
People called “futurists” began to imagine what technology might look like. Check out this 1969 idea of what folks believe home computing might look like. Pay attention to gender roles of the time.
Michael S. Hart was working on a fairly straight forward ARPANET project at the University of Illinois and finished it fairly quickly. He started thinking about what he could do with the time and space at his disposal. In his backpack, he happened to have a copy of the Declaration of Independence and figured out how to download into the computer. He realized that millions of books in the public domain (not under copyright protection) could be made available to anybody with a computer port. Providing free access to knowledge through the internet was a radical idea. He called it Project Gutenberg. Check it out:
ARPANET spread to 15 universities by 1971. Ray Tomlinson worked for a Boston corporation cooperating with several New England universities. He was supposed to be working on something else where he got irritated that his colleagues at other schools weren't calling him back. So he started playing around with sending messages over the ARPANET system. The first message went from a computer on one side of the room to a computer on the other.

He realized he needed to create addresses for this email so he went with the user's name "@" the name of their computer in the system.
Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak introduced the revolutionary Apple II at the San Francisco Computer Faire. The brochure logo read: "Simplicity is the ultimate sophistication."
MUD or Multi-User Dungeon games was designed to create a real-time virtual world using the basics from the Dungeon and Dragons dice games. The first MUD was developed at Essex University outside London. You can still play it. Click below:
Just in case the link doesn't work, here's what it looks like.
Tim Berners-Lee got tired of not being able to keep track of all his notes at the CERN physics lab in Switzerland. He realized scientists could work better and create more innovative things if they had access to each other's computers. He wanted to create a free space that links all information to each other. This was huge. His system was so effective that many now assume the world wide web and the internet are the same thing. (They are not.)
The Well (Whole Earth 'Lectronic Link) was the first virtual community and remains the most influential. It looks clunky compared to Facebook but it allows users to post everything from literary masterpieces to family vacation photos. The best of the best still gather here to share ideas.
Prodigy tried to make services centered on shopping but users in 1989 weren't really ready to buy things they couldn't touch. AOL set out to create a social network so people could connect for a $19.98 monthly service fee. They didn't have to pay extra to shop nor did they have to pay per minute. AOL introduced interactive games and connections to specially created sites such as the Library of Congress.
First online political campaign started in a console in a Texas bar. Really.
A German company developed the file compression system for MP3. It didn't work very well until a couple of college kids figured out how to use it to compress music files.
Sister Judith Zoebelein, a Franciscan Sister of the Eucharist, was asked to create a Web site for Pope John Paul II. He posted his first message on Christmas Day.
That was the first time an online only news organization broke a major story.
Two Stanford computer science graduate students create an online search engine but it's bandwith was too big. They went off on their own and created an engine playing on the word “googol,” a mathematical term for the number represented by the numeral 1 followed by 100 zeros. The use of the term reflects their mission to organize a seemingly infinite amount of information on the web.
Things start happening pretty fast. I'll let Wikipedia tell you about itself. Note though for all Wikipedia' many strengths, editors remind you the story needs updating.
MySpace launches with a million users in the first month and over five million before the year is out.
Mark Zuckerberg turns Thefacebook, a Harvard-only network, into Facebook with funding from Sean Parker, founder of Napster. He eventually becomes the world's youngest multi-billionaire.
This news social networking site lets you vote for stories you "dig" or think should be "buried." The idea was to give the masses the power to decide what should and should not be news.
Created by three PayPal employees, the company was sold to Google in its first year.
Microblogging is born. In less than five years, Twitter is credited with bringing down entire governments during the Arab Spring.
Google sends out its camera truck to create StreetView, taking address directories to a new place.
Hulu launches a beta version of its on-demand video streaming for television programs and movies. The name is Chinese, meaning "interactive recording" and "vessel which holds precious things."
Amazon releases its $399 Kindle tablet. The 80,000 titles available for download cost extra.
Steve Jobs releases Apple's iPhone. More than 200 patents were filed to secure the technology.
Barak Obama wins with a heavy social media campaign, using Twitter and YouTube.
Arab Spring begins in Iran with opposition to the the president falsely claiming victory. His guards shoot and kill protestors in the street. Neda Agha Sultan was one of the victims. The next video was shot by with a cell phone camera and sent around the world.

IMPORTANT: This video is extremely disturbing so you want to make sure small children are not around.
Within a day, Neda's face appeared on protest posters world wide. Learn more about her story here:
iPad is introduced and becomes the world’s fastest selling non-phone gizmo.
iPad introduces Flipboard and the idea of aggregate news sources becomes manageable for the average user. All your favorite news from friends and sites can be collected into a slick magazine format. A term you need to know: news aggregator.
Google+ becomes the fastest social network to reach 10 million users, taking the record at 16 days. It might have beaten Twitter and Facebook, but Twitter has 100 million users and Facebook has 800 million users. If Facebook were a country, it would be the fourth largest in the world.
Pinterest founders create the social photo pinning app in a small apartment. The grid board with sleek design appealed to women. This time four years ago hardly anybody had heard of it. Now there are over 72 million users.
Your job for this week's Discussion Board...
Select two presidential candidates of your choice. Lots of folks create spoof and supporter sites, but let's review each candidate's official presence in social media channels:
What do you learn about how social media is now an integral part of campaigning? How are the social media apps and sites being used in new ways? How was social media part of the campaign strategy?
But in just few months, the newspaper publishers announced that the readers complained ... they wanted the print edition, too. The paper went back to daily print.
And now Google Glass.
Current version at $1,500.
Benjamin Day
Not everybody wants their messages to last forever. Snapchat seems made for sextexts. WhatsApp works for corporate execs and dissents who don't want watchers tracking their mail.
Drones are the next wave of information gatherers. Journalists are using drones to report on sports events and even riot scenes.
Instagram launched in 2010, then sold to to Facebook for $1 billion two years later. It is credited with popularizing the selfie trend. More than a quarter of American internet users have an Instagram
Autochrome Luminere, the first color film, was developed in 1907. A wealthy French banker Albert Kahn aimed to create a photographic record of the world to both document human life and to promote peace. He sent out an army of photographers to 50 different countries, amassing 72,000 photos. The power of photography is shown in this BBC documentary. Watch at least the first three minutes.
Color Photography: 1907
Full transcript