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Impact of the First World War on Canada's Political and Soci

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Chan Nguyen

on 12 September 2014

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Transcript of Impact of the First World War on Canada's Political and Soci

Impact of the First World War on Canada's Political and Social Policies
Impact on Political Policies
In the September of 1917, Parliament gave the franchise to all soldiers, including those overseas, as well as to any wives, mothers, and sisters of soldiers.
In the October of 1917, Parliament was dissolved. Five days later, Prime Minister Sir Robert Borden announced the commencement of conscription and full woman's suffrage.
The Business Profits Tax and a War Income Tax were passed. An "anti-loafing" law threatened jail for any man not gainfully employed. Federal police forces were ordered to hunt for sedition. Socialist parties and radical unions were banned as well as newspapers published in the "enemy" languages. Unprecedented government control and involvement in the daily lives of Canadians became a reality. Food and fuel shortages led to "Meatless Fridays" and "Fuel-less Sundays".
Department of Veterans Affairs and the Department of Pensions and National Health were formed.
Canada achieved a considerable degree of autonomy from British control. Canada's direct reward for its participation in the war was a presence at the Versailles conference and a seat in the new League of Nations. However, the deep national divisions between Francophones and Anglophones created by the war, and especially by the Conscription Crisis of 1917, made postwar Canada fearful of international responsibilities. Canadians had done great things in the war but they had not done them together.
(The Canadian Encyclopedia: The First World War)
Government's role in information management extended far beyond the surveillance and editing of soldiers' letters from the front.
An official censor in Canada monitored newspapers and other publications for material that might harm the war effort, while federal officials threatened editors and publishers with jail time if they failed to comply with warning notices.
(War Museum)
Large-scale propaganda campaigns became a part of everyday life.
Posters urged enlistment and other forms of war support, and asked citizens to contribute to charitable campaigns, buy Victory Bonds, or ration scarce items such as meat or fuel.
Their imagery relied on patriotic symbols, recognizable icons, and historical figures to identify the war with popular and worthy causes.
Public parades, rallies, and charitable events encouraged voluntary contributions and the shaming or embarrassment of those who were not "doing their bit."
(War Museum)
At the beginning of Canada’s entrance into World War I (1914), an outstanding number of 330,000 Canadians willingly volunteered to fight in the war, making the need for conscription unnecessary.
However by 1916, the relentless human toll of the war and the terrible casualties at the front in Europe were beginning to cause reinforcement problems for the Canadian commanders overseas.
Prime Minister Sir Robert Bordon, realizing Canada’s lack of manpower, returned to Canada in the May of 1917 from the Imperial War Conference in London and announced his decision for compulsory service to Parliament.
Bordon’s decision was met was enormous opposition by the francophones (French-Canadians), but eventually, after massive difficulty, the Military Service Act became law in the August of 1917.
Quebec, a largely Francophone province of Canada, reacted vehemently to the act, and in 1918, during Easter week, fiercely revolted, producing one of the most violent disturbances in Canadian history. Not until federal soldiers were dispatched was the riot put down, leaving 4 dead and many others injured.
The Conscription Crisis of 1917 created an even deeper divide between the Anglophones and the Francophones of Canada, and revealed how the nation was not united in its stand in the war.
(The Canadian Encyclopedia: Conscription)

Changes in Government
Government had intervened in the lives of Canadians to an unprecedented degree, introducing policies that would eventually mature into a fully fledged system of social welfare.
But it had not prevented wartime profiteering, strikes, or economic disasters, leading many to question the extent to which rich Canadians had sacrificed at all.
(War Museum)
Total Canadian railway employment fell by about 30 percent between 1913 and 1915.
Employment levels for workers in the sample dropped by about the same percentage as for the industry as a whole. From late 1915 employment levels recovered sharply, and then stabilized. There was another burst of employment growth in 1920, when the pre-war employment peak was (briefly) surpassed.
As was common throughout Canadian industry, the railways vigorously supported the war effort.
Their business was much affected by the war, since both rail and shipping services were vital for moving troops and supplies.
In 1914 railway workshops were a substantial and technically sophisticated part of the Canadian metal manufacturing industry.
The railways were active in encouraging donations to the Canadian Patriotic Fund and the purchase of Victory Bonds. The CPR set a much-publicized example by encouraging employees to donate a day's pay to the Patriotic Fund.
(Questia School: Railroad Workers and WWI Military)
Railroad Workers & WWI Military
World War 1's Impact
on Canada's Social
World War 1's Impact
on Canada's Political
Novels were published to support the war.
In Beckles Willson's 1924 novel Redemption, the War was viewed as"necessary and morally justifiable," (4).
Never before in the history of this country had the events of four years generated an immediate outpouring of stories, poems, and contemporary history.
(Questia School: Distributors, Agents, and Publishers)
Role of Women
Women joined together to help service men's families,provide relief, and to collect books, papers, food, and clothing for overseas hospitals and combatants.
Their efforts changed attitudes about women's roles in public affairs.
In some provinces women--the wives or mothers of servicemen--obtained the vote.
(Questia School: Distributors, Agents, and Publishers)
Works Cited
The spirit of voluntarism and patriotic fervor that marked the war's outbreak diminished only gradually, and contemporaries considered many later government initiatives, including personal income tax, temporary wartime measures that would be abolished when the war was over.
(War Museum)
"Conscription." The Canadian Encyclopedia. Web. 11 Sept. 2014. <http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/en/article/conscription/>.
"First World War (WWI)." The Canadian Encyclopedia. Web. 11 Sept. 2014. <http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/en/article/first-world-war-wwi/>.
"WarMuseum.ca - History of the First World War - After the War." WarMuseum.ca - History of the First World War - After the War. Web. 11 Sept. 2014. <http://www.warmuseum.ca/cwm/exhibitions/guerre/war-impact-e.aspx>.
"WarMuseum.ca - History of the First World War - Life at Home During the War." WarMuseum.ca - History of the First World War - Life at Home During the War. Web. 11 Sept. 2014. <http://www.warmuseum.ca/cwm/exhibitions/guerre/gov-intervention-e.aspx>.

Brief Summary of WWI Impact on Canada's Politics
Hope you enjoyed our Prezi!
By: Chan Nguyen, Justin Yang, and Tiffany Chang
The Flag of Canada. Digital image. N.p., n.d. Web. 11 Sept. 2014. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flag_of_Canada#mediaviewer/File:Flag_of_Canada.svg>.
Politically, the war was also a watershed. Borden's efforts to win the 1917 election and carry the nation to victory succeeded in the short term, but fractured the country along regional, cultural, linguistic, and class lines.
English and French relations were never lower, and accusations of French traitors and English militarists were not soon forgotten.
Quebec would be a wasteland for federal Conservative politicians for most of the next 40 years. Laurier's forlorn stand against conscription lost him the election and divided his party, but helped ensure the Liberals' national credibility, with a firm basis in French Canada, for decades to come.

Government Censorship. Digital image. N.p., n.d. Web. 11 Sept. 2014. <http://www.glogster.com/margulies/politics/g-6m2318d0chkub62muo0j2a0>.
Canadian World War One Propaganda. Digital image. N.p., n.d. Web. 11 Sept. 2014. <http://www.ww1propaganda.com/world-war-1-posters/canadian-ww1-propaganda-posters>.
Canadian World War One Propaganda. Digital image. N.p., n.d. Web. 11 Sept. 2014. <http://www.ww1propaganda.com/world-war-1-posters/canadian-ww1-propaganda-posters>.
Canadian World War One Propaganda. Digital image. N.p., n.d. Web. 11 Sept. 2014. <http://www.ww1propaganda.com/world-war-1-posters/canadian-ww1-propaganda-posters>.
Canadian Women Win the Right to Vote in National Elections. N.d. Web. 11 Sept. 2014. <http://www.cbc.ca/history/SECTIONSE1EP12CH3LE.html>.
N.d. Canadian Soldiers at War. Web. 11 Sept. 2014. <http://www.bbc.com/news/world-europe-isle-of-man-20254446>.
Canadian Railway Troops. N.d. Web. 11 Sept. 2014. <http://guysboroughgreatwarveterans.blogspot.com/2013/02/canadian-railway-troops.html>.
Romance of Empire Canada. N.d. Web. 11 Sept. 2014. <https://www.etsy.com/listing/186739981/romance-of-empire-canada-by-beckles?ref=market>.



N.d. Canadian Propaganda. Web. 11 Sept. 2014. <http://torontopubliclibrary.typepad.com/arts_culture/2013/11/we-honour-remembrance-day-with-ww1-canadian-vintage-military-posters-.html>.
N.d. Canadian Propaganda for World War One. Web. 11 Sept. 2014. <http://torontopubliclibrary.typepad.com/arts_culture/2013/11/we-honour-remembrance-day-with-ww1-canadian-vintage-military-posters-.html>.
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