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Civil Rights Movements Around the World
Transcript of Civil Rights Movements Around the World
- The election of JFK gave new hope to the Black population
- The counter culture in the 60's caused many of American young to rebel, which gave the Black Americans a chance to spread their word as well What improved it? - JFK was slow to enforce desegregation rulings but despite this he was trying. When violence became greater and greater, Kennedy sent in 500 federal officers to Mississippi back up the blacks. Soon, the Army had to be sent in to quell the violence. This made Kennedy take a firmer stance on civil rights. Kennedy wasn't able to pass many civil rights because of opposition, but his successor, Lyndon Johnson, was able to push through many civil rights initiatives
-Martin Luther King began with leading a boycott on the Alabama transit system when Rosa Parks was convicted after not giving up her seat to a white person. He eventually became leader of the Black Protest Movement. King made his famous speech asking for equality in 1963 and urged peaceful protests. He was assassinated a year later
-Lyndon Johnson passed Kennedy's civil rights bill, which allowed federal government to cut funding to any program that practiced discrimination. He also strived to help the economically disabled by starting a "war on poverty". He also made it easier for blacks to vote by getting rid of the literacy test
- Despite Kings cry for peaceful protests, violent protests broke out in the late 60's in black ghetto's which caused many deaths, injuries, and millions of dollars of property damage
- Malcolm X became the leader of the black Muslims in America as many blacks felt that Christianity was a white religion Apartheid in South Africa Segregation was common place in South Africa but became the law in 1948 when an all white Nationalist Party took power in that year What is Apartheid? - When the all white Nationalist party, made up mainly of Dutch or Afrikaners, took power in 1948, they began enforcing Apartheid which was a doctrine of white supremacy. Apartheid means "apart" or "separate"
- Non-white South Africans suddenly weren't able to marry outside of their race, couldn't choose where to live, or travel where they liked
- Despite the white population being in a 15% minority, they took up almost 9/10's of the land and lived rather lavishly while their black counter parts lived in ghetto like conditions, or worse What lead to change? - The creation of the African National Congress was the largest resistance movement created aimed at apartheid
- The ANC wanted to create a non-racial democracy
- After apartheid was created, many church leaders criticized it and and even greater resistance came from the Black Liberation Struggle
- The United Nations condemned apartheid yearly and finally declared it a crime against humanity in the 80's
- The Sharpeville massacre lead to the death of 67 protesters who opposed Pass laws that required blacks to carry identity papers. This changed the peaceful protests into terrorists attacks. The ANC leader Nelson Mandela was sentenced to life in prison in 1964
- In 1961 South Africa withdrew from the Commonwealth of nations after receiving harsh criticism
- The UN imposed economic sanctions against South Africa in 1962 but the leading industrial states refused to agree
- The Soweto Massacre resulted in the death of 575 Africans who were protesting against a government ruling that required certain High school subjects to be taught in Afrikaans, the language of the ruling party. This lead the youth to be more involved in the ANC who now sought out to sabotage South African Cities
- P.W. Botha became Prime Minister in 1978 and made it seem like he was going to make many changes when in reality he only made minor changes What ended Apartheid? - In the 1980's opposition to apartheid intensified inside and outside of the country
- In 1985 Canadian Prime Minister Mulroney convinced American President Reagan to impose a limited sanction on South Africa
- African trade unions won the right to bargain and primarily used it to oppose apartheid. This caused life for white factory owners to be worse so they called on government to end apartheid
- The economy collapsed which lead to many white citizens to emigrate from the country
- In the mid 80's, the Dutch Reformed Church that had once supported apartheid now condemned it
- In 1990, South African President F.W. de Klerk released Mandela from prison under the terms that the ANC would agree to honour all of the contracts of existing civil servants if it came into power. Mandela was appointed deputy president and both received a Nobel peace prize in their work for dismantling apartheid The Australian Aborigine Civil Rights Movement Much like the aboriginals of North America, Australian aboriginals faced much discrimination and lost many land rights - Australian aboriginals suffered from legal and social discrimination. They were required to sit at the back of the bus, away from whites in a cinema. Returning aborigine servicemen weren't even allowed to enter RSL clubs
- In 1938, the Aboriginal Leader William Cooper lead a national day of mourning on the celebration of the 150th anniversary of colonization
-in 1967, after 10 years of campaigning, 90% of Australians voted in favour of removing references in Australian constitution that discriminated against Aboriginal people