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CHEMISTRY FORM 4 | CHAPTER 9 | SULPHURIC ACID
Transcript of CHEMISTRY FORM 4 | CHAPTER 9 | SULPHURIC ACID
Sulphuric acid is one of the most important chemical in the world.
It is a non-volatile diprotic acid, manufactured through contact process.
The raw materials used in the contact process are sulphur, air and water
There are three stages in the contact process.
PRODUCTION OF SULPHURIC ACID
[ Contact Process ]
Sulphur dioxide is the pollutant primarily associated with acid rain.
Acid rain occurs when pH of the rain is between 2.4 and 5.0.
This is due to the reaction of sulphur dioxide with rainwater.
The negative effects of acid rains:
- Corrosion of concrete and metal structures
- Corrosion of marble monuments and statues
- Causing erosion of top soil
- Death of aquatic life
CHEMISTRY FORM 4 | CHAPTER 9
MANUFACTURED SUBSTANCES IN INDUSTRY
9.1 SULPHURIC ACID
PRODUCTION OF SULPHUR DIOXIDE FROM SULPHUR
1. Molten sulphur is burnt in dry air to produce sulphur dioxide.
2. The gas produced is then purified and cooled.
3. Sulphur dioxide can also be produced by burning metal sulphide
such as lead (II) sulphide or zinc sulphide in dry air.
PRODUCTION OF SULPHUR TRIOXIDE
FROM SULPHUR DIOXIDE
1. The purified sulphur dioxide and excess air are passed over vanadium(V) oxide at controlled optimum conditions to produce sulphur trioxide.
2. The optimum conditions used are:
Temperature: 450 - 500°C
Pressure: 1 atm
Catalyst: Vanadium(V) oxide
3. Under controlled optimum conditions, 98% conversion is possible. Sulphur dioxide and oxygen that have not reacted are allowed to flow back again over the catalyst in the converter.
CONVERSION OF SULPHUR TRIOXIDE
TO SULPHURIC ACID
1. Sulphur trioxide is dissolved in concentrated sulphuric acid to form oleum which is then diluted with water to form concentrated sulphuric acid.
2. The two reactions in stage 3 are equivalent to adding sulphur trioxide directly into water.
3. The addition of sulphur trioxide directly into water is not carried out because the reaction is very vigorous; a lot of heat is given off. Sulphuric acid fumes are produced.
Sulphuric acid + Hydrocarbon = Sulphonic acid
Sulphonic acid + Sodium hydroxide = DETERGENTS
M A N U F A C T U R I N G O F D E T E R G E N T S
M A N U F A C T U R I N G O F P O L Y M E R S
( S Y N T H E T I C F I B E R S )
e.g. sulphuric acid + cellulose = rayon
M A N U F A C T U R I N G O F W H I T E P A I N T
( B A R I U M S U L P H A T E)
Sulphuric acid + Barium hydroxide = Barium sulphate
U S A G E I N S C H O O L L A B O R A T O R I E S
Used as a catalyst, strong acid, dehydrating agent,
oxidising agent and sulphonating agent.
M A N U F A C T U R I N G O F F E R T I L I Z E R S
Sulphuric acid + Tricalcium phosphate = Calcium dihydrogen phosphate
Sulphuric acid + Aqueous ammonia = Ammonium sulphate
Sulphuric acid + Potassium hydroxide = Potassium sulphate
When sulphur dioxide is inhaled at high concentrations, it may cause
severe problems such as narrowing of the airways (bronchoconstriction).
Asthamatics are considerably more sensitive to
bronchoconstriction compared to other individuals.
Demonstration on Sulphuric Acid