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Using evaluation to improve teaching

Andreas Schleicher - Introduction to the 2013 International Summit of the Teaching Profession, 13-14 March

Andreas Schleicher

on 4 October 2017

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Transcript of Using evaluation to improve teaching

Criteria and standards
Evaluators involved in regular appraisals
Evaluators in decisions on promotion
Evaluators involved in decisions on rewards
School principal
Special commission
School principal
School principal
School principal
Peer evaluators at the same school
Central education authority
School principal
Peer evaluators at the same school
Central education authority or government
School principal;
Member of school leadership other than school principal;
Peer evaluator at the same level
School principal;
ISCED 2-3: state or regional education authority in case of appeal or complaint
School principal (1st evaluator);
School organising bodies (2nd evaluator)
School principal
External accredited evaluators;
School principal;
Teacher from another school;
Municipal evaluation commission (composed of local peer evaluators)
School principal
General Inspectorate;
School principal
School principal;
Evaluators specified in the school's quality assurance programme
School principal
Peer evaluators at the same school
Central education authority
School principal representing school organising body (competent authority)
Member of school leadership team;
Peer evaluator from the same school
School principal
Teacher from the same school;
Collegiate body within the school (chaired by principal);
Trained teachers from other schools
School principal
School principal
School principal or teacher reviewer designated by the school principal
What makes a great teacher...
...and who gets to decide?
For what?
with whom?
Who does what?
Appraisal is
School leaders
Mechanisms to use feedback
Performance feedback
Professional development/ formative implications
Financial implications
Recognition and rewards
Information and publication of results
Policy development
Public policy
Using results
Formative use
Summative use
Influence on teacher self-efficacy
Feeding appraisal into professional development
Using appraisal to shape incentives
Addressing underperformance
A relationship between appraisal and teacher practice and motivation
Relationship between appraisal and performance
... small
Influence of appraisal on career decisions
Methodology and procedures, mix of instruments, criteria, purposes, knowledge and skills
Degree of differentiation by type of teachers
Interrelation between teacher appraisal and other types of evaluation
Reference standards
Performance criteria
Teacher classroom observation
Teacher self-appraisal
Teacher portfolio
School self-evaluation
School external evaluation
Student learning outcomes
Student national examination
Teacher professional organisations
Insights on leadership, management and quality of teaching
Conduct appraisal of teaching and non-teaching duties
Design and regulate
Capacity &

The government?
Fellow teachers?
Most countries surveyed by the OECD have some formal or informal mechanisms in place to ensure that teacher appraisals feed into individual and collective professional development activities and continuous learning
Appraisal for accountability aims to provide summary information about a teacher’s past practices and performance, relative to what is considered “good” teaching and to establish incentives for teachers to perform at their best.
Professional profiles of competencies
Job descriptions
School development plans
Planning and preparation
: demonstrating knowledge of content and pedagogy, demonstrating knowledge of students, selecting instructional goals, designing coherent instruction, assessing student learning;
Classroom environment
is about creating an environment of respect and rapport, establishing a culture for learning, managing classroom procedures, managing student behaviour
implies communicating clearly and accurately, questioning, engaging students in learning, providing feedback, flexibility and responsiveness.
Professional responsibilities
, e.g. reflecting on teaching, communicating with families, contributing to the school and district, growing and developing professionally.
Involving teachers is key
Objective-setting and interviews
Surveys of stakeholders
multiple sources
of evidence for appraisal is key
Eight in ten teachers consider their appraisal a
fair and useful
evaluation of their work
One in four teachers report that appraisal and evaluation affects their
professional development
One in ten reports that appraisal and evaluation affects their
One in six reports that appraisal and evaluation affect their
career development
Three-quarters report that they would receive
no recognition
for improving the quality of their work or for being more innovative in their teaching
What do teachers say?
*Figures are country averages of TALIS participants
Teacher tests
Italy's Valorizza stakeholder survey
Surveyed principals, teachers, parents and students offered very similar views as to teachers who are highly respected for their professional behaviour, even if they could not define exact criteria that characterise that behaviour
In Norway, the Teacher Union and the Norwegian Student Organisation have developed principles and guidelines for teacher appraisal by students
Sweden, teachers often conduct surveys among their students with the aim of obtaining feedback on their teaching practices.
In China, teachers are appraised against four aspects of their performance: professional integrity; professional competencies; diligence; and their own and their students’ achievement
'Methods of Effective Teaching Project' www.metproject.org
Guidance on application of appraisal
Experienced peers
Strength of influence of appraisal on professional development
Teachers for
the 21st century

Using appraisal
to improve teaching

Across countries...
2013 International Summit on the Teaching Profession
Andreas Schleicher

Across countries, 20% of new teachers – and 13% of experienced teachers – never received feedback from any internal or external source.
In some countries, figures were considerably higher: 60% of new teachers in Italy reported that they had never received appraisal or feedback, as did a third of new teachers in Spain and Portugal.
What do teachers say?
...then the appraisal has to provide
meaningful feedback
...then you need to be clear about the
of appraisal
In Delaware, student learning outcomes are only one
aspect of appraisal, but the essential idea is that no
teacher should be rated effective whose students do
not progress, and no teacher should be rated
ineffective whose students do progress.
Chile involves many practising teachers as evaluators. Teachers work as “correctors” of teacher portfolios and as peer evaluators who conduct interviews and participate in Community Evaluation Commissions.
Further information

and remember...
Without data, you are just another person with an opinion
Find out more at:
Professional development
Across countries, only 16% of teachers said their appraisal led to a real change in the likelihood of career advancement
only 27% said it led to changes in work responsibilities that made their job more attractive
What do teachers say?
Teachers as active agents in the design and implementation of reform and innovation...
Effective in-service professional development and attractive career structures...
Then effective appraisal will make the crucial difference
Professional autonomy in a collaborative culture...
High-quality initial teacher education and good mentoring...
Teaching an attractive career choice that invites the best candidates...
The Holy Grail?
Or the Alchemists Stone?
Email: Andreas.Schleicher@OECD.org
Thank you!
Find out more about our work at:
...and remember: Without data, you are just another person with an opinion
Using appraisal
to improve teaching

...then appraisal can make the crucial difference
Further information

and remember...
Without data, you are just another person with an opinion
Find out more at:
Appraisal in context
Full transcript