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Transcript of CEREBRAL PALSY
Causes/Degrees of Severity
(gestational infection, brain malformation, prematurity)
(stroke, lack of oxygen or infection during birth)
(brain injury or meningitis after birth
Hypertonia- most common (70-80%); tense contracted muscles
Hypotonia- weak, floppy muscles
Athetoid- 20%; abrupt, large, involuntary movements
Ataxic- 1% to 10%; unsteady, lack of coordination and balance
Mixed- consisting of more than one of these types
Monoplegia- one limb
Hemiplegia- two limbs
Triplegia- three limbs
Quadraplegia- all four
Paraplegia- only legs
Diplegia- legs, less severe arms
Double hemiplegia- arms, less severe legs
Teaching Practices/ Inclusion in G.E.
Scaffolding Lessons into smaller chunks.
Sequencing and organization using audio-visual aids
Modify physical environment to remove obstacles
In general about 50% of students with physical disabilities served in the general education classrooms.
Incidence in General Population
children have CP. Most common motor disability in the US.
babies and infants are diagnosed
with cerebral palsy
two to three children
out of every
have cerebral palsy (United States studies have yielded rates as low as 2.3 per 1,000 children to as high as 3.6 per 1,000 children)
Cerebral palsy is considered a neurological disorder caused by a non-progressive brain injury or malformation that occurs while the child’s brain is under development. Cerebral palsy primarily affects body movement and muscle coordination. Though cerebral palsy can be defined, having cerebral palsy does not define the person that has the condition.
Cerebral Palsy is a chronic, permanent disability that will affect a child throughout his/her life.
A child is entitled to special education services (IEP) if his/her educational performance is adversely affected by a physical disability.
History of Services for Cerebral Palsy
- Industrial School for Crippled and Deformed Children is establish.
- First special Classes for children with physical impairments begin in Chicago.
-Two American physicians, Winthrop Phelps and Earl Carlson (who had cerebral
palsy) advocate for developing the intellectual potential of children with P.D. through appropriate education.
- The United Cerebral Palsy Association is formed.
- FAPE mandate.
- American with Disabilities Act is passed
Heward, W.L. (2013). Exceptional children: An introduction to special education. (10th ed.). London: Pearson PLC
Trumbull, A.P. (2013). Exceptional lives: Special education in today's schools. (7th ed.). London: Pearson PLC