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Classics - Military 40 Marker

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Natalie Alford

on 8 January 2014

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Transcript of Classics - Military 40 Marker

In the
40 years of Augustus's rule,
the Roman Empire
gained more territory
than at
any time in its previous history.
to use his armed forces
to assert Rome's military strength, continue his adoptive fathers legacy and surpass those before him
. It was only the military losses in the
last 10 years
of his life that made him
more cautious in his foreign policy,
seen through his deathbed advice to Tiberius to
"keep the empire within the frontiers".
No temptation for..
The Question
'Augustus felt
no temptation
increase the boundaries

of the empire or
enhance his military glory
How far do you consider this an
accurate assessment
of Augustus' approach to
foreign policy?
Support your answer with reference to the sources you have studied.
Temptation for..
The Military
40 Mark Essay

How to start/what to focus on:
Stick to the question
, highlight
indicator/key words
that can be used to structure your essay.
try to include
key dates
and show how things happened
gradually over time.
3. Inclusion of
references to sources
, using them as points for your argument.
4. Try
to get
bogged down
unnecessary detail
that doesn't demonstrate a point you're trying to make.

It is widely accepted that Augustus only expanded the Roman territory to secure defensive frontiers behind which the empire might develop peacefully.
Increasing the boundaries
Increasing the boundaries
Greater Armenia
I might have made a province....but I preferred, following the
model set by our ancestors,
to hand over that kingdom to
." -
RG 27
By Alex, Rachael, Charlotte, Katy, Beth, Nat & Emily
Enhancing his military glory
Enhancing his military glory
Timeline & Dates to include
Crassus lost Roman standards, Parthia
Marcus Lucinius Crassus defeats the Getae & the Bastanae
First Settlement
Ethiopians invade Egypt
Death of King Amyntas of Galicia
Second Settlement
Parthia Negotiation (Prima Porta)
Senate vote for Ara Pacis
to be built in honour of Augustus
Death of Agrippa
Three Gauls established
Drusus (4 campaigns)
Rhine & Elbe
Death of Drusus
Death of Herod the Great, ruler of Judaea
Tiberius in command of army on Rhine
AD 4-6
New ruler Archelaus of Judaea exiled
Agrippa subdued revolt in Illyricium
Tiberius crushed revolts in Illyricium
Illyricium another uprising ( 3 years)
Augustus grandson Gaius negotiations with Parthia
AD 1
AD 6
The aerarium militare
Varus Teutoburg Forest
AD 9
"I celebrated
two ovations
three rule triumphs
and i was
twenty one times saluted as imperator.
" -
RG 4
" I brought
to the
Spanish provinces
as well as to
, throughout the area bordering on the ocean from
to the mouth of
the Elbe
." -
RG 26
" I raised an army, with which I successfully championed the

of the republic when it was
by the tyranny of a faction" -
RG 1
" The
decreed still more triumphs to me, all of which i
." -
RG 4
" It was the will of our
that the
gateway of Janus Quirinus
should be shut when victor secured
by land and sea throughout the whole empire of the Roman people....while i was leading citizen the senate resolved that it should be
shut on three occasions.
" -
RG 13
"I made the sea
and freed it of pirates." -
RG 25
" I compelled the
to me the spoils and standards of three Roman armies...those
I deposited in the innermost shrine of the
temple of Mars the Avenger
." -
RG 29
fifty-five occasions
the senate decreed that
should be offered to the immortal gods on account of the
successes on land and sea
by me
by my legates acting under my auspices
.” -
RG 4.1
Suetonius 20 (page 53)
"Augustus commanded armies in
only two foreign wars:
against the
while he was still in his teens, and against the
after defeating Antony.”
“ By
victories over enemies
I recovered in Spain and Gaul, and from the Dalmatians
several standards lost by other commanders.
” -
RG 29
“ On my return from
Spain and Gaul
....... after
successfully arranging affairs in those provinces
, the senate resolved that a
n altar of the Augustan Peace
should be consecrated next to the Campus Martius in
honour of my return,
and ordered that the magistrates and priests and Vestal virgins should
perform an annual sacrifice there
.” -
RG 12.2
Suetonius 20
– The remainder of his foreign wars were
conducted by his legates
, though during some of the
Pannonian and German campaigns
he either
visited the front or kept in close touch
by moving up to the Ravenna, Mediolanu or Aquileia.”
25BC - example of expanding in order to defend the Empire
26BC - a mixed example, both defense and offense
27-13BC - Gallia Comata
Augustus was aggressive in the west and diplomatic in the East
Benefits of having client kingdoms instead of Provinces
Suetonius - pg 66
"not wanting to taint Roman blood" -
against expansion?

Gained ships in campaigns abroad
– “I captured six hundred ships, not counting ships smaller than triremes.”

Added to his wealth and was able to supplement Romans, fulfilling Caesar’s wish to pay the plebs
– “…and in my own name I gave them [plebs] 400 [sesterces] each from the booty of war in my fifth consulship [29BC]…”
(15, 1)

Able to recruit soldiers from colonies and with the booty from foreign campaigns pay for their services
– “In my fifth consulship [29BC] I gave 1 000 sesterces out of the booty to every one of the colonists drawn from my soldiers; about 120 000 men in the colonies received this largesse at the time of my triumph.”

Able to use booty for his religious restoration and building programme
– “I built the temple of Mars the Avenger and the Forum of Augustum on private ground from e proceeds of booty.”

Established peace and captured numerous escaped slaves and returned them to their masters, administering justice
– “I made the sea peaceful and freed it of prates. In that war I captured about 30 000 slaves who had escaped from their masters and taken up arms against the republic, and I handed them over to their masters for punishment.” (25,1)

Assured exterior allegiance
– “The Gallic and Spanish provinces, Africa, Sicily and Sardinia swore the same oath of allegiance.”

Extended territory for growing population
– “I extended the territory of all those provinces of the Roman people on whose borders lay peoples not subject to our government.”

Secured borders
– “I brought peace to the Gallic and Spanish provinces as well as to Germany, throughout the area bordering on the Ocean from Cadiz to the mouth of the Elbe.”

Pacified threatening lands
– “I secured the pacification of the Alps from the district nearest the Adriatic to the Tuscan sea, yet without waging an unjust war on any people.”

Added to empire
– “I added Egypt to the empire of the Roman people.”

Recovered provinces
– “I recovered all the provinces beyond the Adriatic sea towards the east, together with Cyrene, the greater part of them being then occupied by kings. I had previously recovered Sicily and Sardinia which had been seized in the slave war.”

Founded colonies
– “I founded colonies of soldiers in Africa, Sicily, Macedonia, both Spanish provinces, Achaea, Asia, Syria, Gallia Narbonensis and Pisidia.”

Room for population
– “Italy too has twenty-eight colonies founded by my authority, which were densely populated in my lifetime.”

Recovered previously stolen treasures lost in war and used the spoils for his religious restoration and building programme
– “I compelled the Parthians to restore to me the spoils and standards of three Roman armies and to ask as suppliants for the friendship of the Roman people. Those standards I deposited in the innermost shrine of the temple of Mars the Avenger.”

Reconciled nations to Rome and extended frontiers
– “…I brought them [the Pannonian peoples] into the empire of the Roman people, and extended the frontier of Illyricum to the banks of the Danube.”

Used Egypt for grain
– “Augustus turned the kingdom of Egypt into a Roman province, and then, to increase its fertility and its yield of grain for the Roman market…”

Argument that Augustus wasn’t interested in expanding the empire or extending boundaries
– “Yet Augustus never wantonly invaded any country, and felt no temptation to increase the boundaries of the empire or enhance his military glory; indeed, he made certain barbarian chieftains swear in the Temple of Mars Ultor that they would faithfully keep the peace for which they sued.”

Gained wealth for the empire
– “For instance, when he brought the treasure of the Ptolemies to Rome at his Alexandrian triumph, so much cash passed into private hands that the interest rate on loans dropped sharply, while the real-estate values soared.”

Increased the population of Rome
– “After thus improving and reorganising Rome, Augustus increased the population of Italy by personally founding twenty-eight veteran colonies.”

Brought harmony abroad
– “he nearly always either restored the kingdoms which he had conquered to their defeated dynasties or combined them with others, and he followed a policy of linking together his royal allies by mutual ties of friendship or intermarriage, which he was never slow to propose.”
Example of how to use sources to back up a point
RG 3
- "The Roman citizens who took the soldiers oath of obedience to me numbered about 500,000. I settled rather more than 300,000 of these in colonies" and "to all these i assigned lands or gave money as rewards for their military service."

RG 28 - "I founded colonies of soldiers in Africa, Sicily..."

Bradley pg 463 -
"some of the colonies mentioned in his list were established for the protection of unruly areas rather than for veterans"

Difficulty placing veterans
Suetonius 13 pg 49
"Augustus led the veterans back to Italy and settled them on municipal lands. However, Augustus failed to satisfy... the veterans, who felt entitles to better rewards on for their service"
Used enemies land gained from revolts
Suetonius 15 pg 49-50 "he would then crush them, confiscate their estates and thus managed to pay off his veterans"
Career opportunities
Example of how to use sources to back up a point

"auxiliary units.. command of ... more usually and increasingly by equestrian prefects or tribunes"
pg 87-88
"as urban centres developed, wealthy members of society took on administrative roles"
SUETONIUS 37 pg 64

"to give more men some experience in the administration of public affairs, he created new offices"
BRADLEY pg 434
"the administration of Rome, Italy and the provinces was shared by the senate and the princeps. This meant that new posts were created"
M. CLARK pg 15
" Augustus established a good relationship with the equites and developed particular posts for them to serve the empire"
Full transcript