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Design and Characteristics of Qualitative Research

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Kanwal Qaiser

on 24 June 2014

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Transcript of Design and Characteristics of Qualitative Research

By the end of this presentation, learners will be able to:
Define qualitative research
Discuss qualitative design features
Enumerate characteristics of qualitative research design

Definition of qualitative research
Qualitative research is a systematic, interactive, subjective approach used to describe life experience and giving them meaning.
Qualitative research combines the scientific and artistic natures of nursing to enhance understanding of human health experience.
It involves broadly stated questions about human experiences and realities, studied through sustained contact with people in their natural environment, generating rich, descriptive data that help us to understand their experiences.
Qualitative Research
Qualitative researchers aim to gather an in-depth understanding of human behavior and the reasons that govern such behavior. The qualitative method investigates the why and how of decision making, not just what, where, when.
Qualitative studies use an emergent design, a design that emerges as researchers make ongoing decisions reflecting what has already been learned
Qualitative research methods
According to Leninger (1992), four most commonly used qualitative methods used by nurses are:
Phenomenological (studies phenomenon)
Grounded theory (constructs theory)
Ethnography (studies culture)

Qualitative researchers do not usually plan for comparisons because the intent is to describe and explain a phenomenon thoroughly.
Research settings:
Qualitative researchers usually collect their data in real world, naturalistic settings.
Time frames:
Qualitative study can be either cross sectional with one data collection point, or, longitudinal with multiple data collection points over an extended period of time.

Characteristics of qualitative research design
It is flexible and elastic, capable of adjusting to what is being learned during course of data collection.
It involves a merging together of various data collection strategies (i.e. triangulation).
Tends to be holistic, striving for understanding as a whole.
Requires researchers to become intensively involved, often remaining in the field for lengthy periods of time.

Process orientation is also a key characteristic of qualitative research studies.  Process orientation focuses on why and how behaviors occur. 
Participant perspectives are important because each participant could understand things differently and do things differently than another because there are multiple realities. 
In order for a researcher to obtain a valid participant perspective, they must develop a long-term and trusting relationship with the participants. 
It is broad and complex and develops theories

Qualitative research is a systematic, subjective approach used to describe life experiences and give them meaning
The purpose is to gain insight; explore the depth, richness, and complexity inherent in the phenomenon.
It is done in natural settings, without any experimentation.
Basic elements of analysis are words rather than numbers.

Thank you
Design and Characteristics of Qualitative Research
Prepared and presented by
Kanwal Qaiser,
MScN part 1

Qualitative design features/ elements
These features are usually post hoc characterizations of what happened in the field rather than features specially planned in advance.
Intervention, control and masking:
Qualitative research is almost always non experimental. There are neither independent or dependent variables nor any aspect in environment or people to manipulate or control. The goal is to develop rich understanding of a phenomenon .

Requires on going analysis of the data to formulate subsequent strategies to determine when field work is done.
It includes inductive data analysis
Basic of knowing: meaning and discovery
Data are collected in the form of words, rather than numbers.
Researcher’s personal experiences and insights are an important part of the inquiry.
Direct data collection is also a key characteristic of qualitative research studies; narrative data is collected over long periods of time from observations and interviews

Polit F D, Beck T c, Essentials of Nursing Research. 7th ed, Philadelphia.
Basavanthappa B T, Nursing Research. 2nd ed, India
Current nursing.com
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