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Transcript of late childhood
divisions 3 EARLY CHILDHOOD
LATE CHILDHOOD Also called "pre-school age," "exploratory age" and "toy age." Physical walking, running, balance and coordination
gross motor skills,drawing, writing, grasping objects, throwing, waving and catching.
Muscles in the body's core, legs and arms develop before those in the fingers and hands. learn to perform gross motor skills such as walking before they
Muscles located at the core of the body become stronger and develop sooner Social Cognitive Middle Childhood Development Physical Social Cognitive From 3 - 12 years
old Middle English childhode,
Old English cildhād. At the beginning of the preschool years, some children may initially be shy and passive in social interactions with other children and they may not yet have the skills to stand up for themselves or to solve problems that arise.
Older pre-schoolers can use their newfound moral sense, together with their evolving language skills, to successfully participate in more complex interactions, and to solve problems that arise in a social context.
Brain growth is particularly rapid during the preschool years, with the number of interconnections among cells and the amount of myelin around neurons increasing greatly. Gross motor skills are about balance and coordination of a child. For example, because of the gross motor skills, the child can control his/her running, walking, or any motion that requires the child to move from one place to another.
Fine motor skills are about smaller or more delicate body movements, such as using kitchen utensils, tying shoelaces, and playing instruments.
According to Piaget, children are not yet able to engage in organized, formal, logical thinking.
Their development of a symbolic function permits quicker and more effective thinking as they are freed from the limitations of sensorimotor learning.
During the pre-school years, a child’s memory increases.
Pre-schoolers watch others and learn from their peers and from adults how to handle different situations.
Pre-schoolers use their growing language skills to function more effectively.
In the linguistic development of children, they rapidly progress from two-word utterances to longer, more sophisticated expressions that reflect their growing vocabularies and emerging grasp of grammar.
The linguistic development is affected by socioeconomic status. The result can be lowered by linguistic -and ultimately academic- performance by poorer children.
Preschool-age children use play as a way to grow socially, cognitively, and physically.
A pre-schooler learns the rules of play, such as turn-taking and playing fairly.
They also develop theories of mind that help them to understand what others may be thinking.
They develop the beginnings of a sense of justice and moral behaviour.
They are eventually able to adjust their emotions to a desired intensity level and can use language to express their wishes and to deal with others.
•frequent rest periods•focus on fundamental gross motor skills•progressive activities•Large muscles in arms and legs are more developed than small muscles• Children can bounce a ball and run, but not in the same time•learning to use their small muscle skills and their large muscle skills same age and sex help each other•full participation•cooperative work•attention from teacher/coach• leadership opportunities.•fun and excitement by playing together•Children need guidance, rules, and limits.•need help in solving problems•beginning to see things from another child's point of view • need more love, attention, and approval from parents
•learn by watching and talking to each other•skill learning through play•Considers ideas and emotions of others •cautious or adventurous• increased ability to remember and pay attention•ability to speak and express ideas grow rapidly•There is very little middle ground, things tend to be black or white•learning to plan ahead and evaluate what they do.•increased the ability to think and reason•very self-centered
•Better control of eye movements and focusing improved•Some sleep well at night, some have difficulties (Nightmare and night terrors)•Need less food that early years, but requires balance nutrition•Only experience minor illness•Great risk from accidents than from illness or nutritional problems•Girls shows greater coordination of arms and legs
•Social relationships begin to encompass genuine friendship, involve trust and endure over time
•Older pre-schoolers engage in more constructive play than functional play, they also engage in more associative and cooperative play than younger pre-schoolers, who do more parallel and onlooker playing.
•Children of authoritarian and permissive parents may develop dependency, hostility, and low self-control, which children of uninvolved parents may feel unloved and emotionally detached. Children of authoritative parents tend to be more independent, friendly, self-assertive, and cooperative.
•Aggression emerge in preschool years
•Slow and steady growth, children gaining, on average, about 5 to 7 pounds and 2 to 3 incches per year.
•Baby fats disappears
•Great improvements occur in gross moor skills, also fine motor skills
•Accidents account for most injuries, especially those related to automobiles, other vehicles, and sports.
•Visual, auditory, and speech impairments, as well as other learning disabilities, can lead to academic and social problems. •Begin to view themselves in terms of psychological characteristics and differentiate their-self concepts into separate areas.
•Use social comparison to evaluate their behavior, abilities, expertise, and opinions
•Self-esteem are developing
•Prefer same-gender friendship
Late Childhood Development Social Cognitive Steady growth and increased abilities characterize a child’s physical development in these years
Gross and fine motor skills develop as muscle coordination improves and new skills are practiced
Sensory problems can interfere with schoolwork and create social difficulties
Physical competence is important for a number of reasons, some of which relate to self-esteem and confidence. Physical competence also brings social benefits during this period, especially males.
In this period, a child masters many of the challenges presented by school and peers, which take on central importance in his life
The development of self-esteem is particularly crucial; when a child feels he is inadequate, his a self-esteem suffers
A child’s friendships help provide emotional support and foster intellectual growth
Children can now receive feedback from outsiders about their accomplishments.
In late childhood, intelligence is demonstrated through logical and systematic manipulation of symbols related to concrete objects.
Children learn to make things, use tools, and acquire the skills to be a worker and a potential provider.
Intellectual abilities such as language and memory become more advanced in late childhood
Reading fluently with appropriate comprehension is a key academic task for a child during this period
Many components and types of intelligence are displayed, and the development of intellectual skills is aided by social interactions
school age Physical The language development of children in the school is substantial, with improvements in vocabulary, syntax and pragmatics. Children learn to control their behaviour through linguistic strategies, and they learn more effectively by seeking clarification when they need it.
Bilingualism can be beneficial in the school years. Children who are taught all subjects in their first language with simultaneous instruction in English appear to experience few deficits and several linguistics and cognitive advantages.
•individual work•cooperative work•independent responsibility•problem solving activities• leadership opportunities•fair play• shared expectations• team culture. •differing reasoning skills,
• use of analogies in explanation
• decision-making and problem solving
Lawrence Kohlberg Sigmund Freud Albert Bandura ERIK ERIKSON JEAN PIAGET RELATED THEORIES Pre Operational
& Concrete Operational Stage Intuitive-versus-guilt stage
& Industry-versus-inferiority stage Phallic Stage
& Latency Stage Preconventional morality level
& Conventional morality stage social learning theory
children learn new behaviors from observing other people.
external reinforcement was not the only way that people learned new things
sense of pride, satisfaction and accomplishment could also lead to learning
by observing children develop new skills and acquire new information.
Handedness –right handed or left handed. A clear preference for the use of one hand over the other Nightmare –vivid bad dream
Night Terror –an intense physiological arousal that causes a child to awaken in state of panic
Mental retardation –a significantly sub average level of intellectual functioning that occurs with related limitations in two or more skill areas
Mild retardation – intellectual disability with IQ scores in the range of 50 or 55 to 70
Moderate retardation – intellectual disability with IQ scores from around 35 or 40 to 50 or 55
Severe retardation –intellectual disability with IQ scores that range from around 29 or 25 to 35 or 4o
Profound retardation –intellectual disability with IQ scores below 20 or 25
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder ADHD –a learning disability marked by inattention, impulsiveness, a low tolerance for frustration, and a great deal of inappropriate activity Learning disabilities –difficulties in the acquisition and use of listening, speaking, reading, writing, reasoning or mathematical abilities
Stuttering –substantial disruption in the rhythm and fluency of speech; the most common speech impairment
Visual Impairment –difficulties in seeing that may include blindness or partial sightedness
Auditory Impairment –a special need that involves the loss of hearing or some aspect of hearing
Speech Impairment –speech that deviates so much from the speech of others that it calls attention to itself, interferes with communication, or produces maladjustment in the speaker. Asthma –a chronic condition characterized by periodic attacks of wheezing, coughing, and shortness of breath
Authoritarian parents –parents who are controlling, punitive, rigid, and cold and whose word is law; they value strict, unquestioning obedience from their children and do not tolerate expressions of disagreement
Permissive parents –parents who provide lax and inconsistent feedback and require little of their children
Authoritative parents –parents who are firm, setting clear and consistent limits but try to reason with their children, explaining why they should behave in particular way
Uninvolved parents –parents who show virtually no interest in their children, displaying indifferent, rejecting behavior
Functional play –play that involves simple, repetitive activities typical of 3-years-olds
Constructive play – play in which children manipulate objects to produce or build something
Parallel play –action in which children play with similar toys, in a similar manner, but do not interact with each other
Onlooker play –action on which children simply watch others at play but do not actually participate themselves
Associative play –play in which two or more children interact by sharing or borrowing toys or materials, although they do not do the same thing
Cooperative play –play in which children genuinely interact with one another, taking turns, playing games, or devising contests
Gifted and talented –showing evidence of high performance capability in intellectual, creative, or autistics areas, in leadership capacity, or in specific academic fields
Acceleration –the provision of special programs that allow gifted students to move ahead at their own pace, even if this means skipping to higher grade levels.
Enrichment –approach through which students are kept at grade level but are enrolled in special programs and given individual activities to allow greater depth of\n study on a given topic Fluid Intelligence –intelligence that reflects information processing capabilities, reasoning, and memory
Crystallized Intelligence – accumulation of information, skills and strategies that people have learned through experience and that they can apply in problem-solving solutions
Intuitive thought –thinking that reflects pre-schoolers use of primitive reasoning and their avid acquisition of knowledge about the world.
Egocentric thought –thinking that does not take the viewpoints of others into account
Symbolic Function –According to Piaget, the ability to use a mental symbol, a word, or an object to represent something that is not physically present.