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gabby medina

on 31 May 2011

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Transcript of Schizophrenia

Schizophrenia Schizophrenia is a mental disorder that makes it difficult to tell the difference between real and unreal experiences, to think logically, to have normal emotional responses, and to behave normally in social situations. (it is not a split personality like some people believe) By: Gabby Medina, Kenya Oglesby, Betsy Magna, Leslie C. What is it? 5 types of Schizophrenia Paranoid
Undifferentiated Paranoid Schizophrenia it is one of the several types of Schizophrenia in which a person loses touch with reality. People with Paranoid Schizophrenia may have mistaken beliefs (delusions) that someone is trying to harm them or their loved ones. It is difficult or impossible to convince them that they are not the target of a plot
people with this condition may spend a lot of time thinking of ways to protect themselves from the people trying to "harm" them Symptoms Auditory hallucinations
emotional distance (they often isolate themselves from loved ones)
suicidal thoughts and behavior Delusions Other delusions can include what is classified as 'delusions of grandeur' which is when a person thinks they are famous or that they have some type of superhuman power such as being able to fly, read minds or that they are anointed to perform miracles Auditory Hallucinations When the individual may hear one or more voices that no one else can hear
these voices may "talk" to the individual or to each other
these voices are generally critical and harrassing
they may laugh, mock, judge, or criticize the individual
they may also give orders to hurt themselves or a loved one Sensory Hallucinations Just as hallucinations can be auditory, they can also involve other senses.
A person with paranoid schizophrenia may taste or smell things that aren't there.
They may also feel sensations in their body, sometimes sexual, that aren't occurring. While visual hallucinations can occur, they are not as common as other sensory hallucinations Nonsensical Thinking people with Paranoid Schizophrenia will have nonsensical thinking
this produces disordered speech and actions
while the person interacting with the individual has no idea what they're doing or saying, everything makes perfect sense to the person with Paranoid Schizophrenia Disorganized Schizophrenia Experts in the field are not sure what causes Schizophrenia
some doctors believe that the brain may not be able to process information correctly
genetic factors seem to play a role
people who have a family member with Schizophrenia may be more likely to get the disease themselves Treatment Medications
Electroconvulsive Therapy
Vocational Skills and Training First-generation (typical) antipsychotics:
These medications are to control symptoms by affecting brain chemicals called neurotransmitters. These medications have been very effective in managing delusions and hallucinations.
however, they have frequent severe neurological side effects, including involuntary jerking movements.
Second-generation (atypical) antipsychotics:
These newer antipsychotic medications are effective at managing hallucinations, delusions and other symptoms, such as loss of motivation and lack of emotion. A typical antipsychotic medications pose a risk of metabolic side effects, including weight gain, diabetes and high cholesterol.
Other medications: It's common to have other mental health issues along with paranoid schizophrenia. Antidepressants can be helpful if you have symptoms of depression. Anti-anxiety medications can be helpful if you have symptoms of anxiety or agitation. Medications: Psychotherapy Individual therapy: Psychotherapy with a skilled mental health provider can help the individual learn ways to cope with the distress and daily life challenges brought on by paranoid schizophrenia.
cognitive behavioral therapy, has proven to be especially helpful in the treatment of paranoid schizophrenia. In cognitive behavioral therapy, a mental health provider helps the individual recognize and change harmful ideas and behaviors.
the therapist will help the individual look back on their personal history to gain insights into when, and why, he/she may have started to form those ideas and behaviors.
Psychotherapy can help reduce the severity of symptoms and improve communication skills, relationships, ability to work and motivation to stick to treatment plan.
Family therapy: Both the individual and their family may benefit from therapy that provides support and education to families. Your symptoms have a better chance of improving if your family members understand your illness, can recognize stressful situations that might trigger a relapse and can help you stick to your treatment plan. Hospitalization During crisis periods or times of severe symptoms, hospitalization may be necessary.
This can help ensure the safety of the individual and that of others, and make sure that the person is getting proper nutrition, sleep and hygiene. Partial hospitalization and residential care also may be options Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is a procedure in which electric currents are passed through the brain to trigger a brief seizure. This seems to cause changes in brain chemistry that can reduce symptoms of certain mental illnesses such as paranoid schizophrenia. Because ECT can provide significant improvements in symptoms more quickly than can medications or psychotherapy, electroconvulsive therapy may be the best treatment option in some cases Disorganized schizophrenia is one of several types of schizophrenia, a chronic mental illness in which a person loses touch with reality (psychosis). Disorganized schizophrenia is marked by thoughts, speech and behavior that are inappropriate and don't make sense
Disorganized schizophrenia is considered a more severe type of schizophrenia because people with this condition may be unable to carry out routine daily activities, such as bathing and meal preparation. It may be hard to understand what people with disorganized schizophrenia are saying. Also, frustration and agitation may cause them to lash out. Symptoms: Having beliefs not based on reality (delusions)
Seeing or hearing things that don't exist (hallucinations), especially voices
Odd postures
Trouble functioning at school or work
Social isolation
Clumsy, uncoordinated movements
Disorganized thinking
Grossly disorganized behavior
Absent or inappropriate emotional expression Disorganized thinking. Disorganized thinking causes illogical, nonsensical thought patterns. This disorganization is also noticeable in the way an affected person talks. A person with disorganized thinking may not be able to stay on track in a conversation, instead jumping from one unrelated idea to another, so that it's impossible to understand what the person is trying to say. Making up words is common. Written communications also are very disorganized.
Grossly disorganized behavior. The disorganized behavior common to this type of schizophrenia causes severe problems in an affected person's ability to function in daily life. Bathing, dressing appropriately or preparing meals may be impossible. Other common issues include confronting others without logical reason, wearing many layers of clothing on a warm day, having a very messy appearance or engaging in sexual behavior in public. Treatment is almost the same for all types of Schizophrenia Medications
Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT)
Vocational skills training Catatonic Schizophrenia 3rd type of Schizophrenia
Catatonic schizophrenia includes episodes of behavior at extreme opposite ends
may seem like they're in a coma-like daze — unable to speak, move or respond — or they may talk and behave in a bizarre, hyperactive way.
Catatonic episodes may last for a month or longer without treatment Symptoms Physical Immobility
Excessive Mobility
Extreme Mobility
Peculiar Movements
Mimicking speech or movement Physical Immobility Excessive Mobility Extreme Resistance Peculiar Movements Mimicking speech or movement people with Catatonic Schizophrenia may be completely unable to move or speak, or they may stare, hold their body in a rigid (stiff) positions and seem to be unaware of their surroundings (catatonic stupor).
they may also have a form of immobility known as waxy flexibility
for example, if your leg or arm is moved into a certain position, it will stay in that position for hours. instead of being unable to move, people with this disorder may move in an excited way for no reason
for example; they may pace in a frenzy, run around in circles, flail their arms or make loud noises. may not respond to instructions
may resist any attempt to be moved or may not speak at all may have inappropriate or unusual postures, stare for long periods of time or use strange mannerisms.
may also mechanically repeat certain behaviors (stereotyped behaviors)
for example;repeating words, obsessively following a routine or always arranging objects exactly the same way may repeatedly say words that have just been spoken by someone else (echolalia) or repeatedly copy a gesture or movement made by someone else (echopraxia) Other Symptoms: Incoherent speech
Neglect of personal hygiene
Apparent lack of emotions
Emotions inappropriate to the situation
Angry outbursts
Trouble functioning at school or work
Social isolation
Clumsy, uncoordinated movements Treatment requires lifelong treatment
main treatment options
medications,ECT,Psychotherapy,Hospitalization,Vocational skills and training Medications Benzodiazepines:also called anti-anxiety medications, are sedatives
generally the medication of choice to treat catatonic schizophrenia.
may be injected in a vein if the person is in a state of catatonia —
Benzodiazepines are fast acting, they help relieve catatonic symptoms quickly
may cause dependency with long-term use
may also help if person has anxiety along with catatonic schizophrenia. Antipsychotic medications:generally the medication of choice for schizophrenia
they aren't used as often for the catatonic type of schizophrenia because they can worsen catatonic symptoms. Residual Schizophrenia People whose symptoms have improved enough so that they cant be classified as paranoid,disorganized,catatonic,or undifferentiated
still have symptoms but are not fully recovered How it's diagnosed:
person has been diagnosed with another type of schizophrenia in the past
shows no signs of hallucinations or dellusions
may have "negative" symptoms such as, blunt emotions, or speech may be a bit disorganized Undifferentiated patients symptoms cannot be placed in any of the caterories-paranoid,disorganized,or catatonic
may have hallucinations,dellusions,disorganized speech,neative behavior over the course of the month
so they have multiple symptoms that can't be categorized to one specific disorder Treatmet should be continued even if patient feels better or that they don't need medications to control their symptoms
w/o medications there is a good chance that symptoms will return the outlook for people with Schizophrenia is hard to predict
some people find that their symptoms improve with medication while others find functional disability and have repeated episodes
people with Schizophrenia have a high risk of developing substance abuse problem
there is no way to prevent Schizophrenia :(
recognizing symptoms can help a person deal with symptoms before the disorder gets more complicated
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