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The Electoral College
Transcript of The Electoral College
The House of Representatives had to decide the winner, which was John Quincy Adams. This was the only election in history in which the winner did not gain the most electoral votes. The Upside The Electoral College ensures that the number of votes per state is proportional to the population.
It give states more say in the election than the population, especially those with smaller populations.
It provides an established system for elections and for determining the results of presidential elections.
It defends the government from an uninformed public, one of its original purposes.
The Electoral College encourages political stability.
It also makes candidates pay attention to the minority interests.
It gives each individual voter more power because the votes are counted by districts, not on the Nation-wide scale. The Downside By the Electoral College System, votes go to states, not people.
By redistributing power over population, the electoral college makes some votes count more than others.
It is a winner-take-all system of electoral votes for candidates (except for Maine and New Hampshire).
It excludes American Territories such as Puerto Rico.
It re-enforces a two-party system.
Delegates are not required to vote as promised.
Due to this system, candidates focus on swings states, not the American people. By redistributing power, the Electoral College makes sure that votes are proportional to population, but this also means that some votes count more than others. The representation in the Electoral College by state Creation of the Electoral College The Electoral College was established in the US Constitution in Article 2, Section 1.
The Founding Fathers created it because they thought the president should be elected by voters but not directly.
They didn't want direct voting because (1) smaller states would be at a disadvantage and (2) the Founding Fathers were not "commoners" and they did not believe the public was informed enough to make a good decision because access to information and transportation was limited.
The founders did not anticipate the concept of political parties when they created the Electoral College. Won 41.3% of the popular vote (151,271) Won 30.9% of the popular vote (113,122) How it works: www.nndb.com/people/654/000026576 There are 538 electors in the College and 270 are needed to win a majority of votes.
The number of electors per state is equal to the total number of representatives of that state in Congress including the House of Representatives and the Senate (D.C. is allowed 3 electors).
Popular vote determines which candidate receives a state's votes.
There have hardly ever been electors who do not vote for the candidate who wins a majority in their state, but it has happened. You were alive for this one! The 2000 Election The 2000 election is known for the controversy that took place here, in Florida... Electors George Bush won the election as we all know.. But HOW he won is what is interesting... www.geni.com/blog/happy-birthday-john-quincy-adams-359681.html In an extreme situation, the redistribution of power can allow a candidate to win without the majority of the popular vote. 1876 Rutherford B. Hayes Although Tilden won the popular vote by about 250,000, Hayes won the election because he had the majority of the electoral votes. When the Electoral Votes are counted in January, Congress has the ability to object a states electoral votes. The objection has to be stated in writing and signed by at least one member of the House of Representatives and one member of the Senate. Congress then debates for a maximum of two hours and then decides who gets that states electoral votes. Samuel Tilden Some time after the election it was determined that almost 2,000,000 votes were not counted! That's almost 2 percent of the total votes! These votes were not counted due to them being cast on "spoilt" ballots. Basically, the ballots were not filled out correctly, or voters claimed they were confused... How could a ballot be confusing, right? Minnesota Electoral College Assembly It just seems fishy.. In the state of Florida there was an unusually high number of these "spoilt" ballots. This led to Bush winning by an extremely small margin. As would be expected, the Democrats demanded a recount and the Republicans wanted the turn out to stand. A recount was eventually decided upon, yet no one knew how to properly say which ballots were "spoilt" and which were not. Were that many people really voting for Pat Buchanan or did they mean to vote for Gore? While there is not direct evidence of "cheating" The ballots certainly changed the way that the voting turned out. If the "confused" ballots had instead been given to Gore he would have reached the magic 270 electoral votes before Bush. Works Cited
"11.04 Contested Elections and the Electoral College." Contested Elections and the Electoral College / Voting Rights and Citizenship. N.p., n.d. Web. 17 Oct. 2012. <http://www1.cuny.edu/portal_ur/content/voting_cal/contested_elections.html>.
"American Experience: TV's Most-watched History Series." PBS. PBS, n.d. Web. 17 Oct. 2012. <http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/americanexperience/features/general-article/grant-election/>.
"The Controversy Over the 2000 Presidential Election Results." Newsflavor. N.p., n.d. Web. 19 Oct. 2012. <http://newsflavor.com/opinions/the-controversy-over-the-2000-presidential-election-results/>.
"The Electoral College - Controversial Elections." The Electoral College - Controversial Elections. N.p., n.d. Web. 17 Oct. 2012. <http://archive.fairvote.org/e_college/controversial.htm>.
"FindTheBest.com | Find. Compare. Decide." FindTheBest.com | Find. Compare. Decide. N.p., n.d. Web. 24 Oct. 2012. <http://www.findthebest.com/>. Grover Cleveland was the incumbent President running for reelection. He was a Democrat, and his running mate was Allen G. Thurman. Running against Cleveland was Benjamin Harrison, a member of the U.S. Senate and a Republican. His running mate was Levi P. Morton. In this election, Cleveland got 48.6% of the popular vote, and Harrison got 47.8%. So, although neither actually got a majority (over 50%), going by the popular vote, Cleveland did beat Harrison. However, in the Electoral College, Harrison carried 20 states and got 233 electoral votes, whereas Cleveland only got 168 electoral votes from 18 states, making Harrison the winner of the election, despite having actually lost by popular vote. The Electoral College was created to protect the election process from uninformed citizens.
As with any voting system, it has some strengths but is not without faults, including scenarios in which the outcome does not reflect the majority of votes.
There is no perfect system, but in general the Electoral College provides a fair way to determine the President of the United States of America. In Conclusion Can we say that this is cheating? The ballot was certainly confusing, and an unusually high number of votes went to the second circle (Pat Buchanan) that may have been aimed at the party that was listed second, (Al Gore). To further the controversy, during the recount process the decision of which ballots were considered "spoilt" was left to the Republican controlled Supreme Court. They decided that the turnout would stand and propelled Bush to 271 electoral votes. One vote over the majority... Bush needed exactly 24 more electoral votes to win at this point while Gore only needed 3. Conveniently Florida has 25 electoral votes! Even though Gore won the popular vote he lost the electoral vote ultimately losing the election. 1876 (continued) Rutherford B. Hayes Is the Electoral College fair? Samuel Tilden How electors are chosen:
On the day of the election, voters vote for the electors, and, depending on the state, the elector's name may or may not be on the ballot with the candidate's name.
No senators, representatives, or persons holding a trust or profit position under the U.S. government can be an elector. In the election of 1876, the Republicans contested 4 votes from Florida, 8 from Louisiana, 7 from South Carolina, and 1 from Oregon. Tilden only needed one of the contested electoral votes to win, but Hayes needed all of them. They put together a fifteen person commission that consisted of seven Republicans, seven Democrats and one independent. The independent was chosen, but then resigned and was replaced by a Republican, giving them the majority of people. Hayes then won every electoral vote 8 to 7 and became the president. Harrison Loomis Jessie Ferrando Ryan LaPré Andrew Provines Margaret LaPré Svetozar Brankov Kaitlyn Avery Kasia McLellan Ben Brown Matt Amoroso Caitlin Stefanick Nicole DeRosa Brian Williamson Mrs. Orr This situation has never occurred, but it could. 1888 Brought to you by... A 2000 election ballot Seems simple enough... http://www.infoplease.com/images/cig/supreme-court/1592571492_img_371.png Suddenly America had an unusual number of supporters for the reform party... Obviously the confusion at the ballots directly changed the outcome of the election. So what can we say about this election? This election reminded Americans that the electoral voting system is not the same as the popular vote. Continued
"Google Images." Google Images. N.p., n.d. Web. 19 Oct. 2012. <http://www.google.com/imghp?hl=en>.
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Infoplease. Infoplease, n.d. Web. 19 Oct. 2012. <http://www.infoplease.com/ipa/A0876793.html>.
Peters, Gerhard, and John Woolley. "1888 Presidential Election." The American Presidency Project. The American Presidency Project, n.d. Web. 24 Oct. 2012. <http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/showelection.php?year=1888>.
Seelye, Katharine Q. "Study Says 2000 Election Missed Millions of Votes." The New York Times. The New York Times, 17 July 2001. Web. 19 Oct. 2012. <http://www.nytimes.com/2001/07/17/us/study-says-2000-election-missed-millions-of-votes.html>. Continued
"U. S. Electoral College: Frequently Asked Questions." U. S. Electoral College: Frequently Asked Questions. N.p., n.d. Web. 18 Oct. 2012. <http://www.archives.gov/federal-register/electoral-college/faq.html>.
Wilson, James Q., John J. Dilulio, Jr., and Meena Bose. American Government: Institutions and Policies. Boston: Wadsworth, 2012. Print. The Electoral College