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Writing and Research

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Mrs. Fugate

on 11 April 2013

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Transcript of Writing and Research

Cause and Effect Chronological /Sequential Order VIVID WORDS provide sensory details and word pictures to the reader. Supporting Sentences are the sentences that help out the main idea. They make the topic sentence have meaning throughout the writing. Compare and Contrast http://www.ereadingworksheets.com/text-structure/patterns-of-organization/chronological-order/ Summary - a short piece of writing about a longer piece of writing; includes the most important details Use graphic organizers to compare/contrast different topics. Words that appeal to the senses (sight, hearing, smell, taste, and feel) If you don't have strong supporting sentences, you don't have a strong piece of writing. You must revise your writing to be certain it is strong. Nothing happens without a reason or without some kind of consequence.
When you explain why things happen and what occurs when they do, the technique you use is called cause and effect. Cause is why something happened.
Effect is the result of what happened.
Because effects always have causes and causes always lead to effects, we rarely see one without the other. Cause and Effect The cause answers the question, "Why?" The effect is the second thing that happens.
The effect answers the questions, "What happened?" "What was the result?"




Example:
Jaime was going too fast and fell off his bicycle. In some paragraphs, the cause-and-effect relationship is not directly stated.

In these cases, you have to - "read between the lines."
Use clues from the paragraph to identify cause-and-effect relationships. RPDP Secondary Literacy Effects can form chains where one effect goes on to cause a second effect, which may then cause a third effect and so on.

Example:
When people pollute rivers, they destroy the habitats of fish.
This reduces the number of fish that can reproduce. As a result, fewer fish are born in fresh water, and the fish population declines.
Cause1: People pollute rivers .
Effect 1: The habitats of fish are destroyed.
Effect 2: Fewer fish can reproduce.
Effect 3: Fewer fish are born in fresh water.
Effect 4: The fish population declines. RPDP Secondary Literacy These expressions indicate cause -
Because…
Since…
Cause..
Reason..
So that
Unless..
The main reason… RPDP Secondary Literacy I’m all bandaged up because of my fall. Let’s see how this works –

As a result of his bad fall, Professor Green is wearing bandages and a cast. RPDP Secondary Literacy Try this idea when you are not sure.
When you answer a question that begins with why, try putting the word because in front of your answer choices. Then read the choices this way to help figure out the correct answer. Helpful Tip RPDP Secondary Literacy The crime rate in Mr. Leon’s neighborhood was very high. Many houses had been robbed and cars vandalized. All the neighbors were upset. The mayor ordered the police to patrol the neighborhood. Within two weeks, the neighborhood’s crime rate dropped drastically. Finally, everyone felt safe again. RPDP Secondary Literacy Why did the crime rate drop?
All the neighbors were upset.
Houses and cars were robbed and vandalized.
The mayor called for added police protection.
Everyone in the neighborhood felt safe again. RPDP Secondary Literacy Why did the crime rate drop?
Because all the neighbors were upset.
Because houses and cars were robbed and vandalized.
Because the mayor called for added police protection.
Because everyone in the neighborhood felt safe again. RPDP Secondary Literacy These expressions indicate effect -
As a result of
If
Consequently
Effect
Therefore
Thus RPDP Secondary Literacy About 75 million people died from the bubonic plague during the 14th century. Half of the population of Italy fell victim to the disease. The plague caused high fever, swollen glands, dark bruises or sores on the face, and spitting of blood. Most people who got the disease died within five days. The disease was spread by fleas from rats. Lack of sanitation and poor medical knowledge account for the continuous plague epidemics throughout the 14th century. RPDP Secondary Literacy Practice Question What caused so many people to die from the bubonic plague?

Lack of sanitation and poor medical knowledge account for the continuous plague epidemics.
The dead were buried without the usual prayers.
Italy was constantly at war.

The victims got large bruises or
sores on the face. RPDP Secondary Literacy The phrase account for was your clue. Practice Question What caused so many people to die from the bubonic plague?

Lack of sanitation and poor medical knowledge account for the continuous plague epidemics.
The dead were buried without the usual prayers.
Italy was constantly at war.

The victims got large bruises or
sores on the face. RPDP Secondary Literacy Marcia was a skilled and capable driver. She had driven all the way from New Mexico in her brand-new car without any problems. Suddenly, because she hit a long patch of frozen ice, she lost control and the car ended up in a ditch. As she climbed out, she realized that the car was demolished. What was the cause of Marcia’s accident?
A. She was very tired from the long drive.
B. The road was icy.
C. The car was new.
D. She landed in a ditch. Practice Question RPDP Secondary Literacy How did you do? Marcia was a skilled and capable driver. She had driven all
the way from New Mexico in her brand-new car without any
problems. Suddenly, because she hit a long patch of frozen
ice, she lost control and the car ended up in a ditch. As she
climbed out, she realized that the car was demolished.






What was the cause of Marcia’s accident?
A. She was very tired from the long drive.
B. The road was icy.
C. The car was new.
D. She landed in a ditch. Practice Question RPDP Secondary Literacy The simple sneeze is actually a complex reaction. The impulse
to sneeze comes from irritation of a group of nerves in back of
the eyes. When the signals reach the brain, the body takes a
quick breath, then muscles contract violently. Finally, the
sound “kerchoo” comes out.
What is the initial cause of sneeze?
Nerves are irritated.
The brain is signaled.
Eyes are irritated.
Muscles contract violently. Practice Question RPDP Secondary Literacy How did you do? The simple sneeze is actually a complex reaction. The impulse
to sneeze comes from irritation of a group of nerves in back of
the eyes. When the signals reach the brain, the body takes a
quick breath, then muscles contract violently. Finally, the
sound “kerchoo” comes out.
What is the initial cause of sneeze?
Nerves are irritated.
The brain is signaled.
Eyes are irritated.
Muscles contract violently. Practice Question RPDP Secondary Literacy
Carlos Palomino was a champion boxer. Yet he gave up
boxing and earned a degree in recreation. He chose this field
because he wanted to work with kids. Not everyone can
become a paid athlete, he says. That’s why school is so
important for all young people. Carlos hopes his example will
help others set high goals in education as well in sports.

Why did Carlos get the degree in recreation?
He had earned many honors.
He wanted to work with kids.
Not everyone can become a paid athlete.
He was an ideal boxer. Practice Question RPDP Secondary Literacy How did you do?
Carlos Palomino was a champion boxer. Yet he gave up
boxing and earned a degree in recreation. He chose this field
because he wanted to work with kids. Not everyone can
become a paid athlete, he says. That’s why school is so
important for all young people. Carlos hopes his example will
help others set high goals in education as well in sports.

Why did Carlos get the degree in recreation?
He had earned many honors.
He wanted to work with kids.
Not everyone can become a paid athlete.
He was an ideal boxer. Practice Question RPDP Secondary Literacy
Read the passage about Mr. Matters below. Then determine the order that events took place in the story.
Mr. Matters and His Morning Exercises
Mr. Matters was a very well liked neighbor that we had for years. One day he woke up and didn't feel so well. He decided to go to see Dr. Jerome to see what the problem might be. Dr. Jerome is the best! Dr. Jerome did some blood work on Mr. Matters. He found that his blood contain very little vitamins and minerals. He recommended that Mr. Matters begin to eat more fruits and vegetables. In addition, he wanted Mr. Matters to exercise three times a week for thirty minutes every time. Mr. Matters wanted to feel better, so he followed the good doctor’s advice. Every morning he woke up, he followed the same routine. First, he ate a grapefruit and drank
a glass of water. He would then walk two miles. He would end off with a full body stretch. Then he would ride his bike to work. As months went on, Mr. Matters felt a ton better. He began help Ms. Stewart prune her garden every night after work. As a form of payment, Ms. Stewart would always make Mr. Matters a healthy dinner.
Place the events in order (1 being first) by using 1-6:
____ Mr. Matters went to the doctor
____ Mr. Matters helped prune Ms. Stewart’s garden.
____ He walked two miles.
____ He would ride his bike to work.
____ Mr. Matters did a full body stretch.
____ Mr. Matters ate a grapefruit. I have provided the beginning and the end of, "The Lottery," by Shirley Jackson. Your groups must decide the sequential order for the parts of the story you have. CHOOSE ONE NUMBER AND COMPARE/CONTRAST THE TWO USING A GRAPHIC ORGANIZER. Think about the community in which you live. Think about what you could do to make it a better place. Choose one problem that needs to be solved to make your community a better place to live. Write a letter to me describing how solving this problem would make your community a better place. Tell what you would do. Give reasons why you think your plan would work. Your school has been invaded by ants! Everywhere you look, you can see the little pests: in the lockers, desks, and classrooms. Write a letter to your principal in which you suggest a solution to the pesky problem of ants in your school. During the past year, three students at your high school have died in automobile accidents. Your community is grieving and wants an end to this senseless loss of life. Write a letter to the editor of your local newspaper in which you suggest a solution to the problem of teenage traffic fatalities in your community. Imagine that a new student has moved in next door and does not like living in your neighborhood. Write a letter to him or her explaining what places and activities your neighborhood offers for teenagers. You will first need to identify the problem, and then offer your solutions to this student. Include specific details and explanations of what to do and explain why your ideas are ones you think he/she will enjoy. EXIT SLIP
April 8, 2013
Write at least one paragraph using one of the following prompts: 1.Two stages of a person's life
2.Two places you have visited
3.Two fast-food restaurants
4.Two pets in the same household
5.Two professional athletes
6.Two neighborhoods
7.Two video games
8.Two memorable teachers or professors
9.Two close friends
10.A starting pitcher and a reliever The cause is the first thing that happens.
It makes the second thing (the effect) happen.
The part of the sentence after the word because is the cause.

Example:
I stayed home from school because I had the flu. Graphic Organizers are visual aids that help you organize information that you read. Some of the most common and useful organizers are: idea maps, flow charts, cause-and-effect diagrams, and Venn diagrams. Paraphrase - a restatement of an author's ideas, using the reader's own words Critique - an author's opinion 1) Clearly state the topic of your critique.
2) Give names of characters, setting, and basic plot.
3) Explain the conflict. Give background on the characters; explain the emotional side of the characters.
4) Explain the climax and resolution. If there's a moral lesson, state it.
5) Give your opinion about the story, word choice, author's style, direction (if play or film), and so on. State to the reader if you recommend the story or not. Fish Nuggets You should be able to visualize what is being told. Action Verbs: movement and images (descends, chattering, leaping)
Appropriate Modifiers: words or phrases, or adverbs and adjectives that tell you something about a word (leaping in the sunlight, careless, extremely joyful) Active vs. Passive Voice In an active sentence, the subject is doing the action.
"Steve loves Amy." Steve is the subject, and he is doing the action: he loves Amy, the object of the sentence.
“I Heard It through the Grapevine.” "I" is the subject, the one who is doing the action. "I" is hearing "it," the object of the sentence. In passive voice, the target of the action gets promoted to the subject position. Instead of saying, "Steve loves Amy," I would say, "Amy is loved by Steve." The subject of the sentence becomes Amy, but she isn't doing anything. Rather, she is just the recipient of Steve's love. The focus of the sentence has changed from Steve to Amy.If you wanted to make the title of the Marvin Gaye song passive, you would say “It was heard by me through the grapevine,” not such a catchy title anymore. Create 5 ACTIVE sentences. Underline the subjects.
Then, make those sentences PASSIVE and circle the new subject. On page 132 in the COACH book, there are 11 questions you should ask yourself when revising. Read those questions and paraphrase them. Write a thesis statement for the following prompt:
In a well-written, five-paragraph essay, discuss the physical and human demographics (stats - such as location, population, economic status) of Brainerd High School. Be sure to discuss the major physical features, cultural features, and human-environment interaction that takes place on campus. Assessment A thesis statement is a sentence used in an essay that serves as the guide for the essay and directly answers the question or task asked of you. Given the definition and components of a thesis statement, along with a sample writing prompt with pre-written thesis statements, students will be able to distinguish the better of three thesis statements by correctly identifying it Learning Objective If you don't understand thesis statements, ASK ME FOR HELP! You have to get used to writing thesis statements because you will need them as you continue your education. My Final Thoughts Brainerd High School is a very….
There is no physical or cultural environment like…….. Possible starting points You will now apply what you learned by writing your own thesis statement to a writing prompt. Your Turn!! On each of the following slides, read the writing prompt and the two sample statements. Choose the one that is the best choice for a thesis. ...addresses the prompt clearly.
...makes a claim, or presents an argument.
...is arguable (an opinion).
...is in the first paragraph of an essay. A Thesis Statement... A thesis is NOT a factual statement or a topic sentence. What is a thesis NOT? Writing Thesis Statements When you read a passage, how much do you have to read to understand the topic or purpose?
What is the purpose of writing an essay? Discussion Questions There is an opinion (it has offered solutions, it has created more severe poverty). It addresses the positive (solutions) and negative (poverty) effects. A - You are ready to write! This statement addresses the prompt, and presents and opinion that can be argued. B - Correct! Great Job! B) One person I admire is Babe Ruth, the greatest baseball player of all time. A) One person I admire is Babe Ruth, who played baseball from 1914 until 1935. 1. Early on in life, people develop an admiration for heroes. In a well-developed essay, discuss a person you admire and why you chose this person. Definition An essay without a thesis statement is like a car without a driver Give direction Thesis Statements Again, this would be a perfect thesis statement, if the prompt only asked for the effects of globalization. The prompt, however, specifies positive and negative effects. This is only positive. B - Practice. You will get there. This one would be perfect for a thesis, there is only one thing wrong with it. It does not address all of the writing prompt. It only addresses the vegetation, but not the climate or the factors for climate. A - This one is tricky! This is a topic sentence. The reason it is not a good thesis is because it does not present an argument or address the whole prompt. It is a factual statement. To make it a strong thesis, you must add to it. Almost! But not quite. This statement gives an argument, it presents the three physical features asked for in the prompt, and makes reference to the importance (significance) A - Correct! You are getting this! This is correct because it addresses the social, economic and political effects as stated in the prompt. Notice that the words people (social) and government (political) were used in this statement. This makes the sentence more original and shows the reader that you know what “social” and “political” refer to. B - Correct Again!!!! Although this is meets all the criteria for a thesis statement, it only addresses part of the writing prompt. Remember, the statement tells the reader what to expect. With this as a thesis, one would only expect to read about the economic effects. A - Incorrect B) World War II not only affected the economy of the United States, but also altered the role of the American government and the American people forever. A) World War II was a costly war that had a major impact on the economy of the United States. 2. …Discuss the social, political and economic effects of World War II on the United States. Although this does address the writing prompt, this is a factual statement. A thesis statement should be something you can argue for or against. A - Incorrect B) In India, globalization has meant new jobs for India’s emerging middle class. A) Globalization in India has offered solutions to poverty for some and created more severe poverty for others. 5. In South Asia, globalization has played a big role in the developing economies of the region. Discuss the positive and negative effects of globalization in one South Asian country. This statement gives an argument, and address all aspects of the writing prompt (topic, effect, factors). Notice how you do not have to go into detail, just give the reader a hint of what you will write about. B - Correct! You are on a roll! A) Human activity is altering the the vegetation of Sub-Saharan Africa and causing desertification, which will have devastating effects on the people of the region. B) Even though the climate and vegetation of Sub-Saharan Africa varies as a result of latitude and human activity, they are still the two most important factors in determining the quality of life. 4. Discuss the effect of climate and the vegetation on Sub-Saharan Africa. Be sure to discuss the factors contributing to climate, and the impact human activity has on the vegetation. B) Three physical features found in Latin America are the Andes Mountains, the Amazon River and the Yucatan Peninsula. A) The Andes Mountains, the Amazon River and Yucatan Peninsula are the three most significant physical features in Latin America. 3. … Describe three physical features of Latin America and their importance to the region. When reading back your thesis, ask yourself a few questions:
Did I address the entire prompt?
Can I argue against this statement?
Will I address all of this in my essay?
Is it grammatically correct?
Is the statement clear and understandable? Pay attention the the type of writing and use context clue to help you figure out the author's purpose and the targeted audience. There are three reasons authors write:
To inform, to persuade, and to entertain. An author's audience is who he had in mind when he created his writing.
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