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PANDAS

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gabi andersen

on 5 December 2014

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Transcript of PANDAS

The Effects of Climate Change on Giant Pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca)
http:/www.acsu.buffalo.edu/jasmined/giant-panda.jp
By: Gabi Andersen, Sam Rasmussen, Jason Bren, Anthony Gilles and Walter Jordan
General Information
Location and Habitat of Giant Pandas
Reproduction
Diet
Giant Panda Role
Endangered species
Ursine origin
Solitary
1,600 wild pandas

http://img.timeinc.net/time/photoessays/2011/panda_wolong/panda_wolong_01.jp
Location
Shaanxi, Sichuan and Gansu, China
1300-3000 m above sea level
Change range according to the seasons
Winter range
Lower altitude
Summer range
Higher altitude
https://www.google.com/maps/place/Sichuan,+China/@34.1628323,102.8210538,5z/data=!4m2!3m1!1s0x36e4e73368bdcdb3:0xde8f7ccf8f99feb9
http://Nationalzoo.si.edu
http://wrscomsg.files.wordpress.com/2012/10/121010-r9c0699dt1.jp
Carnivore
Primary food is bamboo
1% of diet is other food intake
Fungi
Carrion
Bones
Has an up right feeding position
10-12 hours a day feeding
http://www.sellingyourscreenplay.com/wp-content/uploads/garden/2014/02/Bashania-fargesii.jp
http://explore.org/photos/4397/yearling-giant-panda-reaching-for-bamboo-the-ps.jp
Pseudothumb
Breeding maturity 4-8 years
Females ovulate once a year
2-3 days
Have multiple mates
Genetic diversity
Captive breeding
Artificial insemination
Uses dens for birth
Cub stays with mother for about 18 months
Life Cycle
95-160 days for gestation
Has two cubs
3 Stages of Growth
1 month
Highest mortality rate
2-5 ounces
1/900 of mom weight
2-4 months
Eyes open
Increase movement
Support own body heat regulation
5 months-1 year
Teeth development
Follows after mother
Learns eating habits
www.google.com
www.google.com
Crucial role in bamboo forests
Spreads seeds through droppings for greater growth in vegetation
Cultural icon for Chinese people
Eco-tourism
Educates general public about surrounding area
Flagship Species
Ambassador
Raises profile to help with biodiversity conservation
Economic and Social Repercussions

Population below 1500
Of those, only 300 in captivity
Bring in millions and very expensive
$1.2 million in merchandise
Lots of money earned but even more lost
Eco tourism directly impacts local communities
Wolong Panda Reserve
Logging vs. Eco tourism
NFPP
Eco tourism Training
Economic Development
With ban of Logging in 1998 new threats emerged:
Pop. Growth
Mining
Irresponsible tourism
http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/commodity/gold/

Poaching
Data is hard to collect because it's illegal
"Accidental" Poaching
1987-1998, 52 Giant panda skins were confiscated
Distribution of poaching is "non-normal"
Max in one year was 10, Min. was 2
Catastrophes & Natural Disasters
Bibliography
Bies, L. (2002). Ailuropoda melanoleuca. University of Michigan. Animal Diversity Web. 1-9.

Fan, J. Li, J. Xia, R. Hu, L. Wu, X & Li, G. (2014) Assessing the impact of climate change on the habitat distribution of the giant panda in the Qinling Mountains of China.1-9

Yiming, L., Zhongwei, G., Qisen, Y., Yushan, W., & Niemela, J. (2002). The implications of poaching for giant panda conservation. Science Direct, 111, 125-136.

Wei, F., Fgeng, Z., & Hu, J. (1997). POPULATIONV IABILITYA NALYSISC OMPUTERM ODELO F GIANTP ANDA POPULATIOINN W UYIPENGW, OLONGN ATURALR ESERVEC, HINA. Int. Conf: Bear Res. and Manage., 9(2), 19-23

Zhang, J., Hull, V., Xu, W., Liu, J., Ouyang, Z., Huang, J., ... Li, R. (2011). Impact of the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake on biodiversity and giant panda habitat in Wolong Nature Reserve, China. The Ecological Society of Japan, 523-531.

Songer, Delion, Biggs, and Huang. "Modeling Impacts of Climate Change on Giant Panda Habitat."
International Journal of Ecology."
2012.
Earthquakes & Floods
Magnitude 8 earthquake Sichuan of 2008
23% of habitat was lost
Estimated that over 60% of pandas were affected in some way
Earthquakes also caused flooding and landslides
Also led to starvation, injury and malnutrition of pandas.
8 Earthquakes above 7.0 since 1933!
Evergreen plant in the grass family Poaceae
Pandas prefer only a few species of bamboo
99% of diet
Eat up to 40lbs/day
Bamboo
http://www.china.org.cn/environment/news/2008-10/28/content_16680148.htm

What has been done
What still can be done to help
Pros and Cons of what has been done and what can still be done
www.pandasliveon.com
What Can We Do?
Importance of pandas
Reasons why pandas need help
The possible future of the species
Conclusion
Panda Historical Habitat
Threat to Panda survival
Habitat Destruction
Driving forces of habitat loss are agricultural conversion,
and large-scale activities such as road construction, logging, mining, and hydroelectric development.
Interruption of migration route
Scientists surmise that the migration of giant pandas forced by bamboo flowering historically played a role in maintaining healthy panda populations. Panda movement promoted breeding between different populations, thus discouraging in-breeding, which can weaken a species. human development has restricted panda bear access to areas where bamboo is less likely to be affected by rising temperatures
Predation
Panda infant mortality is high both in captivity and in the wild. They are susceptible to predators including Asian golden cats, the leopards, the jackals, the wolves, the yellow throated martens, etc, which will mainly attack the baby pandas, the sick ones, the weak ones and the aging ones. 
 

Illness
Digestive system diseases: vomit, diarrhea, blood in stool, and ileuses; Respiratory system diseases: cold and upper respiratory tract infection; Nervous system diseases: falling sickness;
Hemopoietic system diseases: hemolytic anemia,seasonal febrile diseases;
The parasites: the panda ascarids, tick acarids, etc.

Climate change

may pose a significant threat to giant panda survival. Current climate models estimate a 1.4–5.8 degree Celsius increase in temperature during this century

Climate Change effect
Deforestation and forest degradation are threatening the survival of about half of all bamboo species worldwide, and climate change may present an additional significant threat. Many bamboo species are vulnerable to climate change because their unusual extended sexual reproduction intervals (from 10 to 120 yr), along with limited seed dispersal ability, render them less capable of adjusting their distributions to the rapidly changing climate projected to occur within this century. Despite the vulnerability of bamboo species to climate change, knowledge of climate-change-induced dynamics of bamboo distribution and their effects on other species is lacking.


the Qinling Mountains located in the northern part of the present panda distributional range and covering approximately a quarter of the remaining panda. Together, three bamboo species,
Qinling arrow ,
dragon-head
wooden
account for more than 90% of bamboo cover and constitute the main diet of the panda in this region.

Tuanmu, M. (n.d.). Climate-change impacts on understorey bamboo species and giant pandas in China’s Qinling Mountains. Retrieved December 4, 2014, from http://www.nature.com/nclimate/journal/v3/n3/full/nclimate1727.html

Modeling Impacts of Climate Change on Giant Panda Habitat. (n.d.). Retrieved December 4, 2014, from http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijecol/2012/108752/

Climate Change Forecast Spells Doom For Bamboo, Panda Bears. (n.d.). Retrieved December 4, 2014, from http://www.redorbit.com/news/science/1112729306/panda-bears-bamboo-climate-111212/

Projects - Latest listing of new or updated WWF Projects. (n.d.). Retrieved December 4, 2014, from http://wwf.panda.org/what_we_do/where_we_work/project/projects/index.cfm?uProjectID=CN0858

Bibliography Continued


http://www1.american.edu/ted/panda-tour.htm


http://www.telegraph.co.uk/earth/wildlife/10266114/Pandas-provide-economic-boost-and-symbol-of-friendship.html


http://www.pandasinternational.org/wptemp/why-save-the-giant-panda/

http://www.evaluationsonline.org.uk/evaluations/Browse.do?ui=browse&action=show&id=500&taxonomy=INT
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