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Introduction to the Restoration and 18th Century
Transcript of Introduction to the Restoration and 18th Century
1688-1689: The Glorious Revolution--deposition of James II and accession of William of Orange (William and Mary)
1707: Act of Union unites Scotland and England, creating the nation of "Great Britain."
1717: Hanoverian period begins with the accession of George I Religion
The Church of England is the only state-sanctioned denomination--it was illegal to attend other religious meetings, the Book of Common Prayer is mandatory, and the Test Act is required of anyone taking civil or military office--it required them to take the sacramant in an Anglican church and deny belief in transubstantiation. Most of these rules and restrictions affected Protestant Dissenters and Roman Catholics. Rise of the Middle Class
trade, monied interests, the stock exchange, banking
Much of the prosperity is due to expanding colonialism. In a reciprocal way, colonialism also gives people new things to buy (silk, tea, and china)--these displays of wealth enhance status. Some conflicting ideas:
A distrust of Reason's ability to reveal truth to man: "overconfidence in human reasoning as the supreme disaster"
there is also a new interest in science and nature, which "advanced [a] program of methodical experimentation and inductive reasoning"
neither of these diminish the importance of religion; it just "reveals our need to accept Christian mysteries as our intellectual foundation" The Pilgrim's Progress Mrs. March broke the silence that followed Jo's words, by saying in her cheery voice, "Do you remember how you used to play Pilgrim's Progress when you were little things? Nothing delighted you more than to have me tie my piece bags on your backs for burdens, give you hats and sticks and rolls of paper, and let you travel through the house from the cellar, which was the City of Destruction, up, up, to the housetop, where you had all the lovely things you could collect to make a Celestial City.... We never are too old for this, my dear, because it is a play we are playing all the time in one way or another. Our burdens are here, our road is before us, and the longing for goodness and happiness is the guide that leads us through many troubles and mistakes to the peace which is a true Celestial City" (Alcott 23-24) "There was some books too, piled up perfectly exact, on each corner of the table. One was a big family Bible full of pictures. One was Pilgrim's Progress, about a man that left his family, it didn't say why. I read considerable in it now and then. The statements was interesting, but tough" (Twain 141) 1. The Dream of the Rood
2. The Faerie Queene
3. Paradise Lost
Compare the work to The Pilgrim's Progress in terms of:
a) the style, tone, and language
b) message and purpose
c) the view of God, Christ, and the Christian life