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Autism

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by

Fatemeh Behnia

on 9 January 2014

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Transcript of Autism

Diagnosis
There is no medial detection or cure for autism
Treatment
New Technology and Research
What Causes Autism???
Autism appears to have its roots in very early brain development
Symptoms emerge between ages 2 and 3


Scientists have determined that there is a genetic aspect to autism
Strong evidence that autism can be hereditary
Defective genes passed from parent to children can lead to autism
Mutations
Events during pregnancy and birth


Environmental influences
Immune system problems
Exposure to toxic or poisonous substances
Symptoms
As a baby, doesn't babble or point to people/ objects
Avoids Eye contact
Prefers playing alone
Becomes violent or aggressive when frustrated
Shows extreme sensitivity to sounds, tastes, light, or touch
Resists being cuddled or touched
Repetitive behavior: rocking, repeatedly lines up toys/ objects
Doesn't respond to emotions: smiling/ frowning
Slow speech development for age
Withdrawn, disinterested with surroundings
Unresponsive or shy
What is Autism???
Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)
Autism is a general term for a group of developmental disorders of the brain
Many types
Spectrum disorder- each person is unique
Symptoms appear when children are young


Difficulty in social interaction- verbal and nonverbal communication
Repetitive behaviors
Poor social skills- secluded
Difficulty learning to speak
Unresponsiveness to
surroundings
Autism
How Common is it???
1 in 88 American Children are autistic
The rate has been rising 10 to 17% annually recently
Over 2 million individuals in the U.S.
Tens of millions worldwide
5 times more common among boys than girls.

In the United States:
1 in 54 boys
1 in 252 girls
Consequences???
Many excel in visual skills, music and academic skills
About 40% have average to above average intellectual abilities.


Significant physical disability
About 25% are nonverbal but can learn to communicate in other ways
Serious physical problems-shorten their lifespan
About 25% experience seizures, or bursts of abnormal electrical activity in brain
Scientists are performing studies to find the genetic basis of autism- better treatment options
MRI- what areas are different in autistic people---> genetic research- finding the genes affected by autism

Experimenting with mice has proven that there may be possible to develop treatments for the symptoms of autism
By:Fatemeh Behnia
Why did I choose to do Autism?
Genetic
Other Factors
Autism is NOT transmitted
History of Autism
Eugen Bleuler, a Swiss doctor, first used the word "autism" in 1911 to describe another disorder.
He based the term on Greek word autos- "self"

Dr. Leo Kanner identified the actual disorder in 1943
It was first thought to be a mental disorder rather than biological.
Thought mothers were to blame
Psychologist Bernard Rimland founded the Autism Research Institute.
Researchers suspect Albert Einstein may have had Autism
Citations
Positive
Negative
Characterized by...
Observation of children's communication and social skills
Detecting symptoms
Screening tests to test if children are developing the skills for their age
Asking parents questions- Modified Checklist of Autism in Toddlers (M-CHAT)
Interacting with the child
MRI, DNA analysis
Specially trained physicians and psychologists
Medical symptoms like seizures or behavioral problems like aggressive outbursts are treated with medication


Improving behavior
Reducing symptoms


Discourage non-productive behaviors that make it more difficult for the child to interact
Encourage communication
Trainer working intensively with child
Drill in the appropriate behaviors
Medication
Training
Applied behavior analysis (ABA)
Website:
"What Is Autism?" Autism Speaks. Autism Speaks, n.d. Web. 09 Dec. 2013. <http://www.autismspeaks.org/what-autism>.
Books
Freedman, Jeri. Autism. New York, NY: Rosen Pub., 2009. Print.
Allman, Toney. Autism. Detroit: Lucent, 2010. Print.
Periodical- Magazine
Fryer, Tim. "Empathising with the Autistic." NewElectronics 22 Oct. 2013: 14-16. Newelectronics. New Electronics, 22 Oct. 2013. Web. 9 Dec. 2013. <http://www.newelectronics.co.uk/new-electronics-digital-magazine/2663>.
Zeno- Autistic Therapy
Communicating is a barrier for autistic children- using gestures is more effective to them
Zeno and the female version Alice are two foot high robots developed by Hanson Robokind that serve as social interaction therapy for autistic children
Facial expressions
Able to gesture
Interact verbally
teach in repeatable way
doesn't get frustrated with the child
Doesn't get tired
Not overwhelming
Artificial intelligence
Therapists can see the effectiveness of the process and can modify it
Sensors
The Autistic children are more comfortable around Zeno and Alice- they connect with the robot more than people
The therapy and research is led by UTA (University of Texas at Arlington) and the Dallas Autism Treatment Centre
Additional Pictures
- any pics taken from online and NOT from one of the previous sources is cited here
Turner, Oren Jack. Albert_Einstein_Head. Digital image. Wikimedia. Wikimedia Commons, 25 Aug. 2007. Web. 9 Dec. 2013. <http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/1/14/Albert_Einstein_1947.jpg>.
US-autism-graph. Digital image. MindMotivations. Mind Motivations, n.d. Web. 9 Dec. 2013. <http://www.mindmotivations.com/resources/articles/some-staggering-facts-about-autism>.
DPK Graphic Design. Chromosome. Digital image. NewAutism. N.p., 22 Mar. 2010. Web. 9 Dec. 2013. <http://www.newautism.com/chromosome-5-found-to-be-a-significant-link-to-autism-disorder/847/>.
Autism-Research-Projects. Digital image. HelpYourAutisticChildBlog. N.p., 7 Mar. 2013. Web. 9 Dec. 2013. <http://www.helpyourautisticchildblog.com/therapies-treatments/1698-studies-that-lead-to-autism-treatments/>.
Autism Awareness. Digital image. PeteKing. N.p., n.d. Web. 9 Dec. 2013. <http://peteking.house.gov/issues/autism>.
This boy with Asperger Syndrome (a form of autism) has highly talented artistic skills for his age
Data showing the rise of autism in the U.S.
MIT researchers have identified a link between the overproduction of certain brain proteins and symptoms of autism spectrum disorder
A Lifelong Disability
It strikes little children for no reason and steals them into an unknown world of their own.
They remain locked up in that alternate reality for the rest of their lives, unable to take in this world.
The Mystery of Autism
...
What is it???
I was interested to do Autism because I never really understood what it was, and every time I asked someone, they were never able to fully explain it. I always wanted to know what it is, so I did the project to increase own knowledge and spread awareness since so many people don't know the full story.
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