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Particle physics

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Devanshi Dave

on 14 January 2013

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Transcript of Particle physics

Particle Physics What is particle physics?

It is a branch of physics that deals with interactions between subatomic particles. Leptons Quarks Photon Graviton Higgs The Standard model
It is the fundamental theory which explains what the world is and what holds it togeather.
6 Quarks
6 Leptons
Force carrier particles

The standard model describes three fundamental forces of nature: electromagnetism, strong and weak nuclear force. The evolution of an atom Dalton's
atom Thomson's
atom Rutherford's
atom Higgs field vs. Higgs Boson Higgs Field - It is a an invisible field of energy that exists throught the universe. It gives the particles its mass. Higgs Boson - This particle was found in the Large Hadron Collider, a particle accelerator. It helps transmit the mass-giving force field to the particles. The boson itself gets the mass from "swimming" through the field. The Higgs particle interacts with all the particles except photon and gluon. This is because photon and gluons don't feel the Higgs field, therefore, they do not have a mass. W and Z Quarks are the smallest particles that the protons and neutrons are composed of.
Unlike protons and electrons, quarks have a fractional electric charge.
In protons, quarks would form a single positive quantum charge.
In neutrons, they would form to go a net charge of zero. Classification of Elementary particles

In the first table of subatomic particles, there were three main groups of particles: photons, leptons and hadrons.
Photons-involved in electromagnetic charge
Lepton-particles involved with weak nuclear force
Hadrons-particles that interact with strong nuclear force.
Murray Gell-Mann called the first three quarks and the next three anti-quarks. These quarks were further divided into flavours shown in the following picture. They can be abbreviated to u,d,s and so on. Sheldon Glashow - said that that the quarks had another quality which he called colour. He said that every quark or antiquark is either red, yellow or blue. These colours keep the quarks in different quantum states. The other type of fermion is lepton. There are six leptons. Three of these have electrical charge and three do not. The best know lepton is an electron (e-). The other two charged leptons are muon and tau. They are charged a lot more like electron and have a lot more mass.

The ones without charge are the three types of neutrinos shown in the picture The four fundamental forces
Gravity How does matter interact?

For example, how do magnets feel each other's presence and attract or repel accordingly? This happens because there are particles that carry the force which makes the object move. They are bosons. Photons carry the electromagnetic force and travel at the speed of light. This particle carries the strong force W and Z particles carry the weak force. The carrier of the gravitational force is graviton. Electroweak
They are streams of high-energy electrons.
They burst out with high speeds, sometimes approaching the speed of light (3.00 x 10^8 m/s).
Some beta particles are able to penetrate several millimetres of aluminum. E=mc^2

The law of conservation of energy states that energy cannot be created or destroyed. This lost mass is converted into kinetic energy through the law of conservation of energy. Democritus
everything is made up of atoms What is particle physics?
It is a branch of physics that deals with interactions between subatomic particles

The Standard Model
It explains what the world is made up of and what holds it togeather
6 quarks
6 leptons
force carrier particles

It also explains the 4 fundamental forces : weak, strong, electromagnetic and gravity Fermion Boson Elementary
Particles Force Gauge Gluon Matter and Anti-matter

for every matter there is an anti matter
anti-particles have opposing charge Paul Dirac predicted that electrons should exist in two different forms: electrons (e-) and positrons (e+).

Pair Production: a process in which electrons and positrons are created simultaneously. Pair Annihilation: the conversion of mass into electromagnetic energy (opposite of pair production). Alpha Decay Gamma Decay Beta Decay Alpha particles was recognized as the nucleus of Helium ion
They burst out at a high speed but have a range of only a few centimeters in air
They are stopped by an ordinary sheet of thin aluminum foil They are electromagnetic radiations with very short wavelengths.
Their wavelengths and energies can vary.
High-energy gamma rays can penetrate at least 30 cm of lead or 2km of air. Composite
Particles Meson Baryon HADRON Proton and anti-proton Neutron and anti-neutron Pions Kaons Eta accelerators are devices that propel and accelerate particles.
their main purpose is to accelerate charged particles to high densities by creating energetic collisions through both magnetic and electric fields which eventually cause these particles to break into even smaller pieces. Particle
Accelerator Linear
Accelerator Oscillating
Accelerators it accelerates particles in a straight line
it is a long tube containing a large number of hollow tube.s
it greatly increases the velocity of charged subatomic particles or ions
it is commonly used for external beam radiation treatments for patients with cancer Cyclotron

it is a particle accelerator in which charged particles accelerated in a circular path
it has two D-shaped cavities called dees
the evacuated chamber between the 2 dees holds the ion source
the acceleration takes place between the between the dee electrodes, where the electric fields are concentrated an electric field accelerators a particle each time it passes between the dees
once the particle becomes energetic enough it stops moving in a circular bath and leaves the accelerator
the main use of cyclotrons are in: medical and biological research Synchrotron

it is a cyclotron in which the magnetic field strength increases with the energy of particles to keep their orbital radius constant
it has a storage ring which keeps the kinetic energy of the particles constant
one application is in bioscience (macrobiology and cell biology) Synchrocyclotron

is a cyclotron is which the frequency of the electrical potential is changed during the accelerating cycle
this permits the particles to stay in phase with the frequency of the alternating electrical field between the dees, even though their masses increases Betatron

it accelerates beta particles
when electrons are accelerated, they undergo a large increase in mass at low energy Three main components of an accelerator

electric fields and radiofrequency cavities
vacuum chamber
magnets The three main parts of an accelerator are found within the hollow ring structure of an accelerator
In accelerators the magnets attract these particles causing them to move at faster and faster rates through the accelerator
They act as conductors Van de Graaff
Generator Particle
Detector Cloud Chamber Bubble Chamber References The three primary responses
the emission of light
the ionization of the medium
phase or chemical change in the medium invented by Charles Wilson When valve A is open - the piston is pushed foreward by the compressed air When valve B is open - the piston is forced backward and the vapour expands to the supersaturated state When charged ions pass through - they attract molecules creating small drops of liquid that form small vapour trails in the chamber Wilson found that in a gas supersaturated with vapour, the vapour will condense into droplets around the trajectories of charged ions as they pass through the gas. The ions leave behind trails of droplets When a charged particle, meets with the mixture, it ionizes it. It is a vessel filled with liquid heated to just below the boiling point.

When the charged particle enters the chamber, ions are formed and liquid is vaporized forming bubbles. The Pauli Exclusion Principle

It was proposed by Wolfgang Pauli and stated that only 2 electrons with the opposite spin may occupy the same orbit. Law of Conservation of Mass Law of Conservation of Mass did not work for beta particles (the energy of the emitted particles did not equal the mass of the lost element) Elementary
Physics The standard model http://www.cnn.com/2011/12/13/world/europe/higgs-boson-q-and-a/index.html
http://prezi.com/we3m1mrnwggw/the-atom-and-its-subatomic particles/]
Grade 12 Fundamental of Physics textbook it is a linear accelerator
uses: accelerate particles before they are injected into other accelerators, bombard atomic nuclei, etc. Synchrocyclotron Betatron Cyclotron Synchrotron When a particle 'swims' through the Higgs field, the Higgs boson transfers the mass to the particle.

Different particles interact with the Higgs field with different strengths, hence some particles are heavier (have a larger mass) than others. If some particles don't interact with the Higgs field, they don't have a mass; they don't feel the field. The stronger their attraction with the Higgs Field, the larger their mass. How does the Higgs field generate mass for other particles? This is the Large Hadron Collider at CERN This is a computer generated image showing Higgs interaction Radioactive
Decay It is a process in which atomic nucleus spontaneously emitts alpha particle when it undergoes radioactive decay. It is the emission of a speedy electron. The general rule for beta decay: Transmutation also takes place in beta decay Bosons In the alpha decay, when the parent nucleus loses an alpha particle it changes into a different element. This is called transmutation.

The equation for alpha decay: Gamma radiation occurs alongside alpha or beta. It does not result in transmutation unless it occurs with other decays. Robert J. Van de Graff
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