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Major Geological Features of Earth's Crust
Transcript of Major Geological Features of Earth's Crust
They are made of earth and rocks
Mountains exist on every continent and beneath the oceans
Mountains cover 1/5 of the earth’s land surface
Mountains are caused when the earth's plates smash together and push upward Mountains An area of high land with a fairly level surface
Formed in a number of ways Plateau upwelling of volcanic magma (magma rises from the matle causing the ground to swell upward)
extrusion of lava (lava pushes out of the earth through cracks)
erosion of water and glaciers (when glaciers erode) Sources:
http://www.bing.com/images/search?q=Snorkeling&view=detail&id=FFFC23D0AE06E14CB457CEB312E05E94E10076A8 also called a dale, glen, cove, hollow, etc: a V or U shaped depression in the earth, usually between two mountains.
usually formed by a river, often depositing silt and becoming a fertile river valley where the first human civilizations arose
usually formed by glaciers as they melt and carve out either an existing V shaped valley or making their own. the summit, or the top of a mountain
the slope, or side of the mountain
a very steep valley between young mountains, known as a gorge 3 Main Parts: Generally, mountains are higher than 600 meters.
(Those less than 600 meters are called hills) Mountain Ranges and Systems Mountain ranges are long chains or groups of mountains.
Ranges are usually 1,000 or more miles long
Example: the Rocky Mountains Mountain Systems are a group of mountain ranges Built up over millions of years Trenches Depression in the sea floor caused my one tectonic plate edge being pushed under the other.
deepest part of the ocean floor; aprox. 2 miles below surrounding ocean floor
parallel to volcanic arch Oceanic Plateaus made from volcanoes
also known as submarine plateaus
they're mostly made up of the Earth's crust but some are made of magma and igneous rocks
the largest one~~Ontong Java–Manihiki–Hikurangi~~is located in the Pacific Ocean
Islands can be on the top of oceanic plateaus = Seamounts Seamounts are deep geologic features rising from the seafloor with a minimum elevation of 1,000 meters
"Mountains under the sea" Seamount – an isolated elevation rising 1000 meters or more from the seafloor
Knoll – an isolated elevation rising less than 1000 m from the seafloor
Pinnacle – a smaller pillar-like elevation off the seafloor. 3 Types of Undersea Mountains Seamounts are mostly volcanic in nature and therefore are found on oceanic crust
Formed by undersea build up of rock
Found in all ocean basins of the world Giant Amoebas
6.6 mi below surface
4" (single-celled) Deep sea vent anenomes Angler fish Sculpin fish Valleys Sea Life