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NATURE & ENVIRONMENT: HABITATS

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Enver Lee

on 20 April 2015

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Transcript of NATURE & ENVIRONMENT: HABITATS

Deforestation
clearing land for factories, plantations and housing.
destroys animal habitats
animal population depletes, leading to extinction
Natural Habitats are being destroyed:
definition of nature
the elements of the natural world, as mountains, trees, animals, or rivers.
definition of the environment
the air, water, minerals, organisms, and all other external factors surrounding and affecting a given organism at any time.
Ecosystem
new types of organisms are being introduced to an ecosystem
causes unbalance of organism
some population of animals might get preyed on and thus become extinct
What causes industrialisation?
1. Growing population
More people -> increase in demand of goods -> growth of industry

2. Improved transportation
Increase in demand of goods -> increase in goods supply -> increased shipping needs
-> railroad business booms

3. High immigration
Some immigrants were skilled in trades -> helps industry grow
Unskilled workers provided cheap labor.
More people = more workers

What causes Deforestation?
NATURE & ENVIRONMENT: HABITATS
Natural Habitats are being destroyed:
Man-made Habitats
Deforestation is clearing Earth's forests on a massive scale for agricultural, industrial or urban use, often resulting in damage to the quality of the land.

Effects of industrialisation
Positive impacts:
new job opportunities
ability to transport raw materials
urbanisation

Negative impacts:
overcrowding
increasing health problems
Case Study 1:
Industrial Revolution
The process in which a society or country (or world) transforms itself from a primarily agricultural society into one based on the manufacturing of goods and services.
Changes due to the Industrial Revolution
hand production methods -> machines
new chemical manufacturing and iron production processes
improved efficiency of water power
increasing use of steam power
development of machine tools
Industrial Revolution
aimed to raise people's standard of living
more goods produced at a lower cost
first sign of the revolution occurred when the steam engine was developed
introduced the concept of companies and factories being able to create goods using machinery
Problems caused by industrialisation
Child labour
low wages
unsafe working conditions
pollution
lack of governmental regulations
Actions taken to resolve problems created by industrialisation
formation of unions to stop all poor conditions
passing of laws to improve industries: child labour laws, minimum wage, and many safety acts, etc.
What causes urbanisation?
an increase in the proportion of people living in urban areas compared to rural areas.
Industrialisation (following the Industrial Revolution)
Emergence of large manufacturing centres
Job opportunities
Availability of easy transportation
Migration
Effects of urbanisation
Positive impacts:
reduced transport costs
sharing of natural resources
increased standards of living
Case Study: London's Docklands
1950s
Today

The London's Docklands
London's Docklands Development Corporation set up - improve economic, social and environmental problems that had developed in the area
Area had been in decline since 1950s - larger ships were unable to access the port
Changes occurring within the London's Docklands
Employment - low rents attracted hi-tech & financial firms
Housing - transformation of former warehouses into luxury flats
Leisure - large shopping area constructed, creation of a number of parks in the vicinity
Transport - construction of the Dockland Light Railway -> makes travel around London easy
Problems created by urbanisation
Traffic congestion
Inequalities in housing provision, access to services and open land, safety and security
Solutions:
Traffic Congestion
Introduction of traffic management schemes
park and ride schemes
cycle lanes
congestion charging schemes
car-pooling
Low Emission Zones
Agricultural activities
:
Overgrowing demand for food products, huge amount of trees are fell down to grow crops and for cattle gazing.
Logging:
Wood based industries like paper, match-sticks, furniture etc also need a substantial amount of wood supply.
Wood is used as fuel both directly and indirectly, therefore trees are chopped for supplies.
What causes Deforestation?
Urbanization:
Construction of roads are undertaken; trees are chopped to create roads.
Overpopulation affects forest covers, as with the expansion of cities more land is needed to establish housing and settlements.
Desertification of land:
It occurs due to land abuse making it unfit for growth of trees. Many industries release their waste into rivers which results in soil erosion and make it unfit to grow plants and trees.
What causes Deforestation?
Mining:
Oil and coal mining require considerable amount of forest land.
Roads and highways have to be built to make way for trucks and other equipment.
The waste that comes out from mining pollutes the environment and affects the nearby species.
Fire:
Hundreds of trees are lost each year due to forest fires in various portions of the world.
This happens due to extreme warm summers and milder winters. Fires, whether causes by man or nature results in huge loss of forest cover.
Effects of Deforestation
1. Climate Imbalance
2. Increase in Global Warming
3. Soil Erosion
4. Floods
5. Wildlife extinction
Solutions to Deforestation
By employing a series of rules and laws to govern it. Clear cutting of forests must be banned.
The cutting of trees has to be replaced by planting young trees to replace the older ones that were cut.
Trees are being planted under several initiatives every year, but they still don’t match the numbers of the ones we’ve already lost.
Solutions to Deforestation
Inequalities in housing provision, access to services and open land, safety and security
Graph showing quality of life in Outer London
Inequalities in housing provision, access to services and open land, safety and security
Graph showing quality of life in Inner London
Solutions:
Inequalities in housing provision, access to services and open land, safety and security
Governments and planners step in to help redevelop run-down inner-city areas
caused by man destroying natural habitats
man tries to rectify the problem by making artificial man made habitats for them
sometimes animals living in man made habitats may not be able to sustain and thrive
What causes the change in ecosystem?
Negative impacts:
overpopulation
severe shortage of housing
unemployment
Effects of urbanisation
Hunting and Fishing:
Any given ecosystem is dependent upon certain key species that provide the foundation for the well-being and regulation of that ecosystem. If a key species is removed and/or eliminated, it may dramatically change the ecosystem.

Global Warming:
Climate change is a direct driver that is continually in effect, causing large-scale changes in ecosystems around the world

An ecosystem is a community of plants, animals and smaller organisms that live, feed, reproduce and interact in the same area or environment.
What causes the change in ecosystem?
Economic Conditions:
Fluctuations in economic conditions create demands for business and industrial practices that may alter the environment significantly.

Science and Technology:
Natural resources are consumed in order to achieve these technological feats has come at a large environmental cost.


Effects of changes in Ecosystem
Impact on Human Health
Loss of Biodiversity
Ozone Layer Depletion
Loss for Tourism Industry
Economic Impact
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