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Swallowing Musculature

Architectural Analysis and 3D Reconstruction
by

Ali Mahdi

on 25 June 2014

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Transcript of Swallowing Musculature

Conclusions and
Future Directions

Swallowing Musculature

Architectural Analysis and 3D Reconstruction

Stephanie M. Shaw
Ali Mahdi
Rosemary Martino
Anne Agur

Swallowing
Normal physiologic function
Dysphagia
"Disorder(s) of Swallowing"
Relatively Common
Caused by:
Neurological abnormalities (i.e. stroke)
Structural abnormalities (i.e. laryngectomy or stricture)
Deconditioning
Associated with:
Pneumonia
Malnutrition
Dehydration
Reduced quality of life
Previous Research
Abd-El Malek (1939)
First to describe detailed architecture of human tongue musculature, including:
Purpose
Architectural parameter measurements were not completed
Takemoto (2001)
Performed microdissections to develop a generalized model of the suprahyoid and tongue muscles
Created 3D models of tongue musculature based on findings from microdissections
Pearson et al. (2011)
1939
2001
2011
Present
Background
The Study
2. To create a
comprehensive 3D model
of the
suprahyoid and tongue muscles
1. To quantify architectural parameters of
suprahyoid and tongue muscles
throughout each muscle's volume
Measured and calculated architectural parameters of the
suprahyoid
muscles (n=12)
3D Model
Inferior View
Lateral View
Lateral View
(Transparent Mandible)
Volumetric modeling (not based on fiber bundles)
Architectural Parameters
Studying a muscle’s
architecture
with the following parameters gives us great insight into its
function
1. Fiber Bundle Length (FBL)
3. Physiological Cross Sectional Area (PCSA)
4. Muscle Volume (MV)
the connective tissue framework
Suprahyoid and Tongue Musulature
the complex interconnectedness of the tongue's musculature
Suprahyoid Muscles
Digastric (Ant + Post)
Mylohyoid
Geniohyoid
Stylohyoid
Mass
Pennation Angle
Fiber length (cm)
Sarcomere length (µm)
Physiological cross-sectional area (PCSA)
Unit force vectors

Based on surface information


Hyoglossus
Tongue Muscles
Methods
Stabilization the specimen
Dissection to expose desired muscles
Microscribe G2X Digitizer, in situ
Data Collection by Digitization
Autodesk™ Maya® 2013
3D Reconstruction
Calculating the Architectural parameters
Computer software with algorithms developed by our collaborators
Data Analysis
Results
Architectural Parameters
Results
Targeted Therapeutic Interventions
A Tool for Education
Further Research and Understanding
Comparison to
Pearson et al. (2011)
2. Angle of Pennation (PA)
Individualized and targeted intervention
Improved diagnostics
Anatomically accurate 3D models
Dynamic 3D models demonstrating physiology
Understanding individual variability

Age-related changes in muscle composition
How do these changes affect function?
Department of Speech-Language Pathology
Department of Surgery

Frequent: 500+ times per day
Rapid: < 1 second
Complex: 30+ pairs of muscles
Identify and use therapeutic interventions to target
specific
dysfunctional muscle(s)

Video:
3D Model
-
The
length
of a muscle fiber bundle between attachment sites

Understanding muscle's
excursion
Angle made between muscle fibers' direction and the muscle's overall line of action
Sum of the cross sections of
each
muscle fiber bundle
relative to the line of action

Understanding muscle's
force generation capability
Muscle
size
Current Knowledge
Previous research has looked at:



Few studies have looked in depth at:

Normal vs. disordered swallowing physiology
Changes in physiology with age
Swallowing-related anatomy
Underlying muscle architecture
Conclusion
(i.e. which muscle are not functioning properly and why?)
For students
For patients
1. 3D Model


2. Architectural parameters

Results:
Dissecting the 3D Models
Results:
Empty Bone Structure
Lateral View
:
Transparent Mandible
Hyoid Bone visible
Bone Structure

Results:
Hyoglossus
Lateral View
:
Transparent Mandible
Hyoid Bone visible

Results:
Geniohyoid
Results:
Mylohyoid
Results :
Diga
stric
Lateral View
:
Transparent Mandible
Hyoid Bone, Mastoid and Styloid processes visible
Long tendon tethered to the hyoid bone

Results:
Stylohyoid
Results:
Empty Bone Structure
Lateral View
:
Transparent Mandible
Hyoid Bone visible
Bone Structure

Lateral View
Results:
Hyoglossus
Lateral View
:
Mandible and Hyoid Bone visible

Results:
Geniohyoid
Inferior View
:
Mandible and Hyoid Bone visible

Results:
Mylohyoid
Inferior View
:
Mandible and Hyoid Bone visible
Inferior View
Results:
Diga
stric
Inferior View
:
Mandible and Hyoid Bone visible
Mastoid and Styloid Processes
added

Results:
Stylohyoid
Lateral View
:
Transparent Mandible
Hyoid Bone visible

Lateral View
:
Transparent Mandible
Hyoid Bone visible

Submental structures separated Mylohyoid into Ant. and Post. bellies
Submental structures separated Mylohyoid into Ant. and Post. bellies
Inferior View
:
Mandible and Hyoid Bone visible
Mastoid and Styloid Processes
added

Lateral View
:
Transparent Mandible
Hyoid Bone, Mastoid and Styloid processes visible
Long tendon tethered to the hyoid bone

Future Directions
Data collected from human cadaveric head hemisections (n=3)
Analysis
Results
More comprehensive
Representing internal architecture
Representing internal architecture
Better understanding of mechanisms (swallowing)
1. Continue Data Collection


2. Dynamic Modeling


Computer Science Department, University of British Columbia
Education (patients, students)
Improve understanding of anatomy and physiology
Create new, targeted therapeutic interventions
Future studies looking at age-related changes
Lateral View
Stylohyoid
Mylohyoid
Lateral View
Inferior View
What can these parameters tell us about these muscles?
Acknowledgments
Dr. Anne Agur
Dr. Rosemary Martino
Dr. William Pearson


James Li
Shannon Roberts
Jason Hermenegildo
Members of the Musculoskeletal Anatomy Lab:
Zain Sohail
Trevor Robinson
Dominic Ko
Thank You!
Increase sample size
Complete intrinsic/extrinsic tongue musculature
3. Using/Applying the Data
Full transcript