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ASL

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Caitlyn Pineault

on 30 January 2015

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Transcript of ASL

American Sign Language
Leal Carter, Jasmine Eshkar, Julia Pearlstein-Levy, and Caitlyn Pineault
ASL: The Overview
But what is ASL?
A Language or Not a Language?
Yes!
No.
Hearing Children
and ASL
Unique grammatical rules and syntax

Not "broken" or "simplified" English

Not a code

More than pantomime

Can be used to discuss ANYTHING!

Has puns and slang
Does not have a culture

"Language" = "Tongue"

Not written

Too different from spoken languages
Deaf Communication
American Sign Language IS a language
But wait! There are more!
French
American
British
Spanish
Asian
African
Gestuno
Gestuno = "universal sign language"

Created at the 1st World Deaf Conference in 1951

Pidgin sign language
1500 signs

Not as complex
**Activity**
Charades
19th century
1994
1996
William
Dwight
Whitney
Marilyn
Daniels
Marylin
Daniels
National Institute of
Child Health and
Human Development
Autistic Children Signing
Studies

Hearing Children
Born to Deaf Parents-
Myth or Fact?
Children of Deaf Parents
will have trouble learning
how to speak
Deaf parents don't know
when their babies cry
Hearing children
of deaf parents
should speak and
sign at the same time.
Having these children
learn sign language will
be confusing to them
Deaf Children
Born to
Hearing Parents
Children and ASL
Hearing
Children
and ASL
Deaf
Parents+
Children
Language
Development
-Respond by Crying
-Sensitive to loud noises
-Respond by Crying
-Sensitive to lights, shadows and smells
Prelinguistic Stage
(During this stage, sensory input
shapes brain's organization)
0-6 mo. Early prelinguistic
6-12 mo. Later prelinguistic
12-18 mo. Sign single words
18-24 mo. Early sign combinations
24-26 mo. Multisign combinations
3-4 yrs. Multisign combinations
5 yrs. Adult-like Language
Similarities
Differences
-Deaf children fall behind in vocabulary

-Three different categories of Deaf Learners:
novel mappers, rapid word learners, and slow word learners

-Hearing language-learners mix up grammar and syntax, deaf language-learners will not do this.

-Deaf children do not learn negation, determiner, or question system
-The first words they learn must
cause some sort of change. (Ex. Mom!)

-Both Hearing and Deaf Children
develop the pointing gesture at the
same time

-Both will use 2 word combinations
by age 2

-Symbolic play encourages language
development in both
Deaf Children
Hearing Children
Vs.
0-6 mo. Early prelinguistic
6-12 mo. Later prelinguistic
12-18 mo. Can say single words
(vocabulary of about 5-20 words)
18-24 mo. Early word combinations.
Short, simple sentences. noun-verb
24 mo-4 yrs. More complicated word
combinations
6 yrs. Speech completely intelligible
and socially useful
Why?
Sign language helps to bridge the two hemispheres of the brain. This gives children two different ways to access a word and its meaning.

Using sign with verbal language meets the needs of auditory, visual and kinesthetic learners.

Similar to children raised bilingually- overall higher performance in language skills when two languages are paired. Perhaps higher effects when both languages can be expressed simultaneously.
Carr, E & Kologinsky, E. (1983)
Ticani, M (Jan 2004)
Thompson, R. H., McKerchar, P. M., & Dancho, K. A. (2004)
Thompson. R. H, Contnoir-Bichelman, N.M, McKerchar, P.M, Tate, T.L & Dancho, K.A., (2007)
Why?
Children with autism struggle with the complexity of spoken language.

Sign language creates an avenue of communication that strengthens speech and language development in the brain.

This allows them to use language at a higher level.
Nouns vs. Abstract Ideas
Different Sign Languages

Signs reflect culture

BSL ASL

60% of ASL signs came from FSL
Hearing parents typically
learn sign language.
There are lots of
resources for this.
Often, they will learn
sign language along
with their child
Nine out of 10 children who are born deaf are born to parents who hear
Surprisingly,
children who are deaf
can learn to sign quite
fluently from their parents,
even when their parents
might not be perfectly
fluent themselves.
'IDEA'
Early Intervention System
The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act
Advantages
:

Similar to English
Easier for non-deaf people to pick-up
Easier for writing in English
Advantages:

Can discuss abstract ideas
Connected to deaf culture
Pantomime
Fingerspelling
Signed Exact English
ASL
Tranquility
I love apple pie.
I love apple pie I.
Apple pie I love.
Love apple pie I.
Apple pie love I.
Syntax
Inflection
Little Things
Verbs
Classifiers
**Fun Fact**

Body language makes up 60% of the exchanges between hearing people
"Without a language, there is no culture; without a culture, there is no self-identity; without self-identity, you must go on trying to be what others demand you to be." ~ Lou Fant
"Language is not something done by the mouth. Language is something done by the brain, and the mouth is one way it can come up." ~ William Stokoe
Positive thinking in the deaf community:
Disadvantages in the deaf community
Trouble in the hearing workforce
deafness can be isolating in hearing world
Fosters a unique culture and community
Pride in deaf accomplishments
It's hard for us to imagine being happy living without sound but some claim they prefer it that way...
Trouble making hearing friends and seeking romantic partners
But how do deaf people perceive themselves?
MYTH: deaf people often consider their deafness a disability
Deaf Communities

Cochlear Implant
So how can deaf people adapt and/or live comfortably in a hearing world?
*20 cities are currently identified as deaf friendly in the U.S., among them Seattle, Austin & Boston
"ASL Motherese"
So how does the cochlear implant work?
* Note the implant is not a hearing aid nor a solution to deafness!
BUT HERE IS HOW IT WORKS...
Step 1: Sounds are picked up by a microphone placed in the ear
Step 2: Speech processor turns sound into coded signals
Step 3: These signals are sent to a transmitter that relays them to the cochlear implant which has been surgically placed under the skin
Step 4: Using this info and super cool science the implant delivers the right amount of energy to electrodes
Step 5: Now stimulated, the electrodes can stimulate nerve fibers in the cochlea which send sound to the brain for interpretation
This sounds awesome, so where is the controversy?
PROS
CONS
Better interaction with the hearing world
better hearing-parent, deaf-child relationship
Better quality of life(?)
Deaf world often sees it as opting out of deaf culture
Parents must make this huge decision for their deaf children
It is dangerous
Implant only gives sound representation-not a key to spoken language-the process to make out what sounds mean requires a lot of support and time
It can be isolating if some deaf family members are implanted and others are not
cochlear-implanted classroom:
Cochlear implant controversy:
WHAT DO YOU THINK:
Will deaf culture and sign be lost if cochlear implants are popularized? Is it right for parents, specifically hearing parents, to make this sort of decision for their kids?
ASL HAS CULTURE THE PROOF IS IN THE POETRY
History:
Popularization
Deaf Poetry was not recognized as a legitimate art form until 1970s
In 1971 "My Third Eye" was the 1st original play/work performed in sign
1976, Dorothy Meyers- "Gestures"
1984 Allen Ginsberg shakes poetry world at National Tech. Institute for the Deaf meeting& inspires Patrick Graybill
Poets like Peter Cook and Clayton Valli make their way onto the scene
How it Works:
Facial expression!
movement!
rhyme, rhythm, alliteration with hands!
Video Footage
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yYFIWHf5F0I
ASL Poetry
English Poetry
Common Ground
Only Performed, based in motion and expression
Only 100 published works circulating
Based in Written and spoken Language
Countless published works and criticisms
Use rhythm, symbolism, metaphors, imagery & rhyme
Both aim to evoke an emotional response!
Yes/No Questions
Wh- Questions
Questions
Rhetorical
Statements
Affirmatives

Nod Head
Exclamations

Increase in intensity and speed
Negations

Squeeze eyebrows
Shake head

"Not"

Noone, nobody, and refuse don't require negative facial expression
Articles
Plurality
Written Notation
Who needs 'em?
"-s" is an English tool, plurality is implied

Ways to pluralize:
Number or quantifier
Cluster affix (group) or demonstrative pronouns
Repeat noun to the right
Pronouns
Get to the point.
-------------- q -------------
Ice cream you want some?

--wq - Time? (underlined)

------rq------ -y-
Want go I? Yes, I want go.

---n--
I agree.


Five-day every-week


We have blue bowl++.
Simplify, simplify
Not "to be"
Tense? Relax: Time indicators with raised eyebrows
No modified endings
English teacher heaven
In/on --> Past/future
They need finish job.
born, broke, caught, forgot, got, left, lost, saw, sold, told, won, fed up, shot, wrote, stole, tore
Bob continue think++.

Eat++ stop.
Past 1966...
During morning
The Devilish Details
Apply
At the turn of the 20th century sign-master storytelling
can we call this progress or are solely speech classrooms a return to the past?
-Sign closer to infant

-Full palm facing infant

-Full-face visibility

-Directed eye gaze
What are they?
Handshapes that represent a group of objects

Show size, shape, and relative placement
Common Examples
CL 3: Vehicles
CL L: Perimiters
CL C: Round Objects (ie tubes)
CL F: Small, Round Objects
CL B: Flat surfaces
When were these rules established?
How does an understanding of ASL shape the deaf world?
ASL Throughout the Ages
Laurent Clerc taught Thomas Gallaudet FSL. Gallaudet founded ASD.
Alexander Gram Bell stigmatized ASL. Deaf schools moved away from signs.
1880: National Association of Deaf
1955: William Stokey began research
1960: Early findings
Late 60s: Recognized language
1968: National Technical Institute for Deaf
1988: Student Protests and Deaf President for Gallaudet
1990: American Disabilities Act
FSL--> ASL
Mid 1800s
Lip Reading and Speech
ASL Comeback
Now that you know...
This information was largely biased against lip reading. Can you think of a way to justify it as a means of communication?

Do you think American attitudes towards the deaf world have changed as a result of learning more about ASL? Or is that too much of a stretch?
Discuss
What information was new or surprising to you?
Have your impressions of ASL changed now that you know its structure? If yes, how so? If no, why not?
Have your impressions of deafness changed now that you know more about ASL?
http://ezproxy.cc.oberlin.edu:2182/View/774334
Clip 1
http://ahiv.alexanderstreet.com/View/774334
Clip 2
In a nutshell (or pink rectangle)...

Hand shape

Position of hand

Orientation of hand
2000
Baby Signing
Unlike this guy...
Full transcript