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Distance Education for K-12 students

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Felita Thomas

on 16 August 2013

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Transcript of Distance Education for K-12 students

Distance Education for K-12 Students
"Virtual or Cyber Schools"

Who?
What?
How?
How good?

Who?
Distance education may be utilized by any public, private and charter school and homeschoolers. Operations of a distance education program can be maintained by "public school districts
and other local education agencies, by state education agencies, by colleges and universities, as cyber charter schools, by regional agencies, by consortia of educational entities, and as nonprofit and for-profit organizations" (A Comprehensive Look at Distance
Education in the K–12 Context by Kerry Rice, Journal of Research and Technology in Education, June 2006).

According to Priorities in K–12 Distance Education: A Delphi Study Examining Multiple Perspectives on Policy, Practice, and Research report, 42 states offered distance education programs. Over the span of the report the enrollment increased between 25 and 50 percent (Priorities in K–12 Distance Education: A Delphi Study Examining Multiple Perspectives on Policy, Practice, and Research by Kerry Rice, Journal of Educational Technology and Society, July 2009).

There was a study conducted by Mr. Bobby Hall, on the need for distance learning in rural areas.
What?
Florida
does it well..
Florida Virtual Schools were the first internet-based public high school in the country
(Distance Learning at the K-12 Level by Victoria Treder, DistanceLearning.com, Retrieved in August 2013).
Facts as outlined by The Center for Public
Education report, Searching for the Reality of
Virtual Schools
- Approximate course enrollments for K-12 - 1.8 million
(in 2009-10)
- "55 percent of public school districts have some students
enrolled in distance education courses" (Searching for the Reality of Virtual Schools by Barth, Hull, & St. Andrie, The Center for Public Education, 2012)
- There are more female students enrolled in distance education
courses
"Nonetheless, a few studies document online students out
performing their non-digital peers, showing that online learning
can be a vehicle for high performance under the right
conditions." (Searching for the Reality of Virtual School by
Barth, The Center for Public Education, May 2012).
There are several definitions of distance education, according to the article, A Comprehensive Look at Distance Education in the K–12 Context article, distance education is "Institution-based, formal education where the learning group is separated, and where interactive telecommunications systems are used to connect learners, resources, and instructors."

The U.S. Department of Education definition of distance education is, “the application of telecommunications and electronic devices which enable students and learners to receive instruction from some distant location.” (K-12 Distance Education: The Case of Rural Schools by Bobby Hall, The Cornell Policy Review, retrieved on August 2013).
Five K-12 Program Types
that the distance learning is divided in are as follows:
Type:
Statewide Supplemental Programs

Description:
"Students take individual courses but are enrolled in a physical school or cyber school within the state. These
programs are authorized by the state and overseen by state education governing agencies." (A Comprehensive Look at Distance Education in the K–12 Context by Kerry Rice, retrieved in August 2013).
Type:
District-level Supplemental
Programs

Description:
"Are typically operated by autonomous districts and are
typically not tracked by state agencies." (A Comprehensive Look at Distance Education in the K–12 Context by Kerry Rice, retrieved in August
2013).
Type:
Single-district Cyber Schools

Description:
"Provide an alternative to the traditional face-to-face school
environment and are offered by individual districts for students within that district." (A Comprehensive Look at Distance Education in the K–12 Context by Kerry Rice, retrieved in August 2013).
Type:
Multi-district Cyber Schools

Description:
"Are operated within individual school districts but enroll
students from other school districts within the state. This represents the largest growth sector in K–12 online learning." (A Comprehensive Look at Distance Education in the K–12 Context
by Kerry Rice, retrieved in August
2013).
Type:
Cyber Charters

Description:
"Are chartered within
a single district but can draw students from across the state. In many cases they are connected in some way to commercial curriculum providers." (A Comprehensive Look at Distance Education in the K–12 Context by Kerry Rice, retrieved in August 2013).
Note: Distance Education is learning and teaching by using the web, internet and computers. It can apply to using the above tools in a single location, like a school or connection across the world.
How?
Single-district online programs: Service students within the district and created by the district. Some are fully online and some provide supplemental courses to students in a particular location. (Keeping Pace with K-12 online and Blended Learning by Watson, An Annual Review of Policy aand Practice, 2012).

Multi-district fully online: District is the main provider for students. Students does not have to go to a physcial location to access material. Operate across multiple districts (Keeping Pace with K-12 online and Blended Learning by Watson, An Annual Review of Policy and Practice, 2012).
State virtual schools: Created by the state or legislation. Used to provide service to students across the state (Keeping Pace with K-12 online and Blended Learning by Watson, An Annual Review of Policy and Practice, 2012).
Consortium online program: Created to provide resource efficiences and apply to students from multiple districts (Keeping Pace with K-12 online and Blended Learning by Watson, An Annual Review of Policy and Practice,
2012).
Postsecondary Program: Programs that accept private pay options (Keeping Pace with K-12 online and Blended Learning by Watson, An Annual Review of Policy and Practice, 2012).
Advantages
"...benefits of distance education for school-age children are increases in enrollment or time in school as education programs reach underserved regions, broader educational opportunity for students who are unable to attend traditional schools, access to resources and instructors not
locally available, and increases in student-teacher communication" (The Effects of Distance Education on K-12 Student Outcomes: A Meta-Analysis by Cavannaugh, Gillan, Kromrey, Hess&Blomeyer, retrieved on August 2013). Improvements in "critical thinking, researching, using computers, learning independently, problem-solving, creative thinking, decision-making, and time management" (The Effects of Distance Education on K-12 Student Outcomes: A Meta-Analysis by Cavannaugh, retrieved on August 2013) were also present in the virtual school students.

A survey, to find advantages with distance learning, was conducted with 126 distance education students in rural locations and "The most common response when asked about the benefits of distance education was that the students enjoyed the autonomy and freedom in assignment schedules given by the course." (K-12 Distance Education: The Case of Rural Schools by Bobby Hall, The Cornell Policy Review, retrieved in August 2013).
Distance education is done in may different ways and formats. Some programs are state supplemented, full-time online, or both (Priorities in K–12 Distance Education: A Delphi Study Examining Multiple Perspectives on Policy, Practice, and Research by Kerry Rice, Journal of Educational Technology and Society, July 2009). It can also be done by students attending virtual classes part or full time, at a school or at their home (Distance Learning at the K-12 Level by Victoria Treder, Distance Learning.com, Retrieved in Aug 2013). The programs can be divided into smaller categories, such as:
How Good?
School Year 2011-2012 (Information from Keeping Pace with K-12 online and Blended Learning article)
Fully Online Schools – student estimate was 275,000 (increase of approximately 15%)
Course Enrollments in a State Virtual School – student estimate 619,847
Number of States with Virtual School Enrollments – 28 (increase of 16% from previous school year)

School Year 2012-2013
Number of states allowing fully online schools – 31

According to The Center for Public Education report, nearly 2 million online courses
are taken annually by public school students.

According to an article,
Distance Learning at the
K-12 Level, "the cost per
pupil who is learning
online is only about
two-thirds that of a
student being taught in a
traditional classroom."
Ohio
reports the highest number of full time online enrollment in 2010-11 at 31,142, followed by
Pennsylvania
(28,578) and
Colorado
(15,214)
(Searching for the Reality of Virtual School by Barth, The Center for Public Education, May 2012)
Full transcript