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Chapter 10

Bonifacio and the Katipunan
by

john rhay salcedo

on 21 September 2012

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Transcript of Chapter 10

Chapter 10 Bonifacio and the Katipunan From Reform to Revolution The Failure of the refom movement led even a reformist like Marcelo H. del Pilar to thing of revolution. There was general disillusionment among Filipinos in Spain and in the Philippines becaus the Government of Spain had refused, and continued to refuse, to introduce the reforms demanded by patriotic Filipinos. An unknown member of Liga, Andres Bonifacio, saw the uselessness of counting the peaceful campaign for reforms. He knew Spain would not listen to the demands of men like Rizal, del Pilar, Lopez Jaena and others, who did not believe in armed revolution as remedy to the evils existing in the Philippines. On July 7, 1892, the newspapers published the news about the arres of Rizal the previous night and the governor-general's order to banish him to Dapitan. That night, a small group of patriotic Filipinos met in a house on Azcarraga Street (now Claro M. Recto Avenue), Manila, and decided to found a society. These men were Andres Bonifacio, Teodoro Plata, Valentin Diaz, Ladislao Diwa, Deodato Arellano, and one or two others. They organized a society called "Kataas taasan, Kagalang-galang na Katipunan nang mga Anak nang Bayan." or Highest and Most Respectable Association of the Sons of the People. The Founders of the Katipunan performed the old blood compact to show their patriotism and love of things Filipino. The Founding of the Katipunan Andres Bonifacio, who conceived the idea of organizing the society, laid down three primary objective of the Katipunan: Civic, Political, and Moral. The Civic objective was based on the principle of self-help and the defense of the weak and the poor. The Political objective was the separation of the Philippines from Spain, that is, to secure the independence of the Philippines. The Moral objective consisted in the teacing of good manners, hygiene, and good moral character. The Katipunan members or Katipuneros, were urged to help sice comrades and their Families. In case of death, the Society paid the funeral expences. The Aims of the Katipunan The katipunan had three Govening bodies: the Kataas taasang Sanggunian or Supreme Council, the Sangguniang Bayan or Provincial Council, and the Sangguniang Balangay or Popular Council. The Supreme Council was the highest. Followed by the Provincial ang the Popular Council. They were the equivalents, respectively, of the central government, the provincial government, and the municipal government. There was Judicial Council, called Sangguniang Hukuman, which passed judgement on members who violated the rules of the Society. The Katipunan Assembly, on the other hand was composed of the members of Supreme Council and the presidends og the Provincial and Popular Councils. There was also a Secret Chamber, composed of Bonifacio, Emilio Jacinto, and Pio Valenzuela. The Katipunan Government It was, therefore, agreed that all members should be allowed to get as many new members as circumstances permitted. Consequently, the membership of the Society increased in a few months. It was the whought that because of the Katipunan had enough members, a set of officers be elected. The elected officers of the Supreme Council were: Deodato Arellano, president of the supremo; Andres Bonifacio, comptroller; Ladislao Diwa, fiscal; Teodoro Plata, secretary; and Valentin Diaz, treasurer. The Katipunan Elections As months passed, Bonifacio observed that Arellano was not very active in the Society, he being a very busy man. So early in 1893 Bonifacio had Arellano deposed and Roman Basa elected in his place. The officers of this second Supreme council were: Roman basa, supremo; Bonifacio, fiscal; Jose Turiano Santiago, secretary; Vicente Molina, treasurer; while whose elected coucilors were Briccio Brigido Pantas, Restituto Javier, Teodoro Plata, Teodoro Gonzales, and Ladislao Diwa.
Early in 1895, Bonifacio, not contented with the performance of Basa as supremp, had himself elected to replace Basa. He remained the Supremo of the Katipunan until the establishment of a revolutionary government in Cavite. The Katipunan members were of three kinds: first grade was called Katipon; the second grade was called Kawal; and the third grade was Bayani. the password of the katipon was " Anak ng bayan"; that of the Kawal was "Gm-Bur-Za"; and that of the Bayani was "Rizal". In order to recognize each other in the streets, a member, upon meeting another member, would place the palm of his right hand on his breast, and as he passed the other member he would close his hand and bring his index finger and his thumb together. Membership Because of the danger of the discovery of the Society was always present, Bonifacio invented a system of writing which would make it a difficult for Spaniards to read the Katipunan letters or any written communications. The Katipunan Codes Spanish Alphabet A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
I
J
K
L
LL
M
N
O
P
Q
R
S
T
U
V
W
X
Y Equivalent Z
B
C
D
Q
H
G
F
ñ
L
K
J
N
V
I
C
P
E
R
S
T
X
M
W
U
Y The Katipunan Flags Bonifacio also wanted a flag to be used by the members as a symbol of their unity. He requested Benita Rodriguez to make a flag for the Katipunan with the help of Bonifacio's wife Gregoria de Jesus and a Flag was made. It consist of a rectangular piece of red cloth with three white K's arranged horizontally in the middle. However it was changed a few weeks after the revolution broke out in August 1896. The new official flag consisted of a red rectangular piece of cloth with a white sun ang eight white rays in the middle. In order to guide the Katipuneros in leading a highly moral life. Bonifacio prepared a sort of Commandments for distribution to them. He called these "commandments" Katungkulang Gagawing ng mga Anang ng Bayan" (Duties of the Sons of the People). These teachings may be described as a decalogue. The Teachings of the Katipunan Love God with all your heart.
Bear always in mind that the love of God is also love of Country, and this, too, is love of one's fellowmen.
Engrave in your heart the be true measure of honor and happiness is to die for the freedom or your country.
All your good wishes will be crowned with success if toy have serenity, constancy, reason, and faith in your acts and endeavor
Guard the amndates and arms of the K.K.K as you guard your honor. It is the duty of all to deliver, at the risk of their own lives and wealth, anyone who runs great risks in the performance of this duty.
Our responsibility to ourselves and the performance of out duties will be the example set for out fellowmen to follow
Insofar as it is within your power, share your means with the poor and the unfortunate.
Diligence in the work that gives sustenance to you is the true basis of love -- love for your ownself, for your wife, and children and for your brothers and countrymen.
Punish any scoundrel and traitor and praise all good work. Believe, likewise, that the aims of the K.K.K are God-given, for the will of the people is also the will of God. Bonifacio wanted to involve the women in the Katipunan without putting it in dager of discovery. In order to minimize the dager of exposing the Society to women tho could not be relied upon. Bonifacio decided that only the wife, sister, and daughter of a Katipunero could be eligible for membership. The Katipunera's duty, aside from helping the male members in their work of propagating the ideas and ideal of the Society, was to make the police authorities believe that no Katipunan meating was being held in the house. The Katipunan Women Among the prominent women members of the Katipunan were Josefa Rizal, president; Gregoria de Jesus, vice-president; Marina Dizon, secretary; and Angelica Lopez Rizal, Rizal's miece, fiscal. Gregoria de Jesus, in particular, frequently risked her life by keeping Katipunan documents in her person at a time when the Spanish authorities were watching the movements of the members. Realizing the uselessness of continuing with the reform movement. Bonifacio believed that the time had come to change strategy and tactics.
Bonifacio was born on 30 November 1863 in a small nipa house on what is now Azcarraga Street near the present Manila Railroad station. His parents, Santiago Bonifacio and Catalina de Castro, were very poor and most probably illiterate. Andres Bonifacio Just as Bonifacio was the "Arm of the Katipunan" so Emilio Jacinto was its "Brains" born in Tondo, Manila, on December 15, 1875, Jacinto belonged to a poor family, although his parents were not as poor as Bonifacio's parents. Emilio Jacinto Prepared by:
John Rhay Salcedo : )
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