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Chapter 9 Section 1 Expanding Markets and Moving West
Transcript of Chapter 9 Section 1 Expanding Markets and Moving West
To understand how markets for products grew rapidly throughout the United States.
One American's Story
An Erie Canal lock in Lockport, New York, shown here in an 1838 engraving, was one of 83 locks that helped link the Great Lakes with the northeast.
9| Section 1
The Market Revolution
Terms & Names
Samuel F.B. Morse
U.S. Markets Expand
In the early 19th century, rural American workers were very self-sufficient.
By mid century, however, the US had become more industrialized, especially in the Northeast where textile mills and the factory system changed the lives of everyone.
Now workers could spend their earnings on goods produced by other workers.
Farmers began to shift to specialization.
specialization - In farming, the raising of one or more crops for sell rather than a variety of foods for personal use.
market revolution - the major change in the US economy produced by people's beginning to buy and sell goods rather than make them for themselves.
capitalism - an economic system in which private individuals and corporations control the means of production and use them to earn profits.
entrepreneur - a person who uses his or her own money to create new business
Samuel F.B. Morse - a New England artist who created the telegraph in 1837. In 1844, Morse tapped out in code the words "What hath God wrought?" The message sped from Washington, D.C., over a metal wire. In less than a second, Morse's words had reached Baltimore, Maryland, prompting an immediate reply.
telegraph - a device for electrial transmission of coded messages over wires.
John Deere - a blacksmith who invented the steel plow in 1837.
Cyrus McCormick - invented the mechanical reaper which permitted one farmer to do the work of five hired hands
These developments lead to a market revolution.
The quickening pace of economic growth was dependent on capitalism.
Entrepreneurs invested their own money to create new industries.
Drastically reduced time necessary to sew shoes and clothing; led to mass production of clothing in factories; reduced clothing prices
Allowed businesspeople to stay in close contact; sped up communication of sales orders and pricing information; helped trains move more efficiently and and safely; linked regions of the country
Inventor - entrepreneur - 1839 - Charles Goodyear invented vulcanized rubber. His invention is created an industry the is still vital today. He took a big risk that paid off for the American public, but left him penniless. The inventor was deep in debt when he died in 1860. I.M. Singer invents a foot-treadle sewing machine.
As American agriculture continued to flourish, farmers began to use mechanized farm equipment.
Manufactured items grew less expensive as technological advances lowered prices.
Inventions and Improvements
New inventions and technologies contributed immensely to changes in American life. Some simply made life more enjoyable while others fueled the economic revolution of the mid-century and transformed manufacturing, transportation, and communication.
Greatly reduced travel time for goods and people, allowing agricultural and industrial expansion; dramatically decreased freight charges; made moving heavy products easier and cheaper; facilitated transportation for goods traveling between North and South
Dramatically decreased travel time for goods and people; eventually carried billions of tons of freight a year.
Made farming more efficient; allowed farmers to shift from subsistance farming to growing cash crops.
Allowed one farmer to do the work of five hired hands; allowed farmers to shift from subsistance farming to growing cash crop.
Provided investment capital to create new companies and industries that boosted US industrial output
Opened up more efficient trade routes; dramatically decreased freight charges; opened heartland to world markets; facilitated transportation of goods between East and West
Provided jobs; produced goods more efficiently; created new markets; produced goods that helped other areas of activity become more efficient
Falling prices meant that many American workers became consumers and purchased new products not only for work, but for comfort as well.
Clothing prices fell by more than 75%, increasing numbers of working people could afford to buy clothes from a store.
New communication links began to put people in instant contact with one another.
Better and faster transportation became essential to the expansion of agriculture and industry.
Robert Fulton built the first steam 1807. By 1830, 200 steamboats traveled the nation's western rivers that flowed into the Mississippi.
The heyday of canals lasted only until the 1860's due to the rapid emergence of railroads.
Water transport was particularly important in moving raw materials and heavy machinery. Where waterways did not exist, Americans excavated them. The Erie Canel was the nation's first major canel.
Growing links between America's regions contributed to the development of regional specialties. The East manufactured textiles and machinery. The West's grain and livestock fed hungry factory workers in eastern cities and Europe. The South exported its cotton to England as well as New England.
New Markets Link Regions
As the Northeast began to industrialize, many people moved to farm the fertile soil of the midwest.
Two ingenious inventions allowed farmers to develop the fertile farmland more efficiently and cheaply, and made farming more profitable.
While the Northeast embraced commerce and industry, most of the South remained agricultural and relied on such crops as cotton, tobacco, and rice.
Though the transportation and communication revolutions were less advanced in the South, these improvements helped keep Americans from every region in touch with one another.
Furthermore, they changed the economic relationships between regions, creating new markets where there had been none.
Meanwhile, these changes encouraged Southerners as well as Notherners to seek land and wealth in the seemingly limitless West.
The natural place for growth of industrialization was in producing clothing.
Sewing machine (and other Improvements):
Accelerated western expansion; provided trade route for goods traveling between East and West
The Entrepreneurial Spirit