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Ancient Rome: From Republic to Empire (Ch. 5)
Transcript of Ancient Rome: From Republic to Empire (Ch. 5)
Empire and Achievements
Greece and Rome for the foundations of “Western” European Civilization
Greco-Roman Civ (Blend of Greek, Hellenistic, and Roman)
"Rome never fell because it turned into something greater – an idea – and achieved immortality – R.H. Barrow
Latin Language and Alphabet
Homer’s “Illiad” and “Odyssey” & Virgils “Aeneid”
Comedy and Tragedy
Herodotus & Thucydides
Spread Christianity and made it the dominant force in Europe during the middle ages
Realism in Sculpture, Frescoes, Mosaics, and Bas-reliefs
Architecture and Engineering
Arch, Concrete, Roads, Dome, Aqueducts, Coliseum, Theatre.
Principles of Criminal Justice
Rome’s decline begins in the 4th century for numerous political, social, economic, and military reasons
Reforms slow decline
Administrative division of empire into East and West
Relocate capital east, from Rome to Constantinople
Germanic invasions weaken the empire (Begins with Hun invasion)
476 A.D. Western Roman Empire Falls
Eastern Roman Empire (Byzantine) would continue for another 1000 years (1453 Ottoman Turks)
The Collapse of The Empire
Slavery (1/3 of Population)
Bread and Circuses “panem et circenses”
Free bread and entertainment to help distract and control the masses
Execution, Chariot Races, Battles, Gladiatorial Games
By 250 A.D. 150 Holidays a year.
Life and Culture
Began with elected leaders
Patricians (wealthy landowners) vs. Plebeians (commoners)
12 Tables – Laws that gave all “free” citizens a right to protection under the law
Executive = 2 Consuls = President
Legislative = 3 “houses” including a Senate = Congress
Judicial = Praetors = Judges
Expansion by conquest of Legions
Conquers Italy and assimilates/Romanizes conquered peoples
Rome vs. Carthage in the Punic Wars
Fight over political and economic dominance of western Mediterranean
Series of Wars…ultimate Roman victory
Rome's dominance in the western med allows it to conquer the eastern med.
Republic to Empire