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Pros & Cons - Animal Testing
Transcript of Pros & Cons - Animal Testing
*Animal testing has helped to improve:
- the measuring of blood pressure
- lung disease treatments
- making the pacemaker more functional
- development of surgical techniques
- research involving chronic degenerative diseases (Cancer and cardiovascular diseases)
* Over the years, laws have been established to ensure that animal testing is done in an ethical manner. Some scientist ignore these laws, and are punished. Medical Improvements & Laws Animal Experimentation Pros Cons Animal Rights * Humans have the ethical responsibility of taking care of animals.
* The key to animal rights is whether an animal can suffer pain or experience pleasure, and since they can, humans have to minimize or stop causing suffering to animals.
* Animals began to have rights in the early 1900's. Many animals had been tried for crimes they committed. * Animal rights activist groups say that the testing done on animals has little to no scientific benefit.
* The body and anatomy of a rat's or a bird's is very different from that of a human's. Since the body's are different, the bodies might react differently to the testing. (A mouse or a rat might react positively to a product, but a human may not.) Scientific Benefit? Facts * Over 70 years 35,000 chemicals have been injected into mice
* 36 drugs have been tested in mice in labs across the nation
* 8,000 ingredients have already been tested on animals
* 22,000 lab men are exposed to rabies nationwide every year
* Most deaths in animals are due to animal testing (96.7%)
* Over 60 million animals used worldwide in research each year
* 50% of animals used in cosmetic testing die with in 3 weeks of experimentation.
* Mice and rats account for 85% of animals tested
* Only 1 to 1.5 percent of research animals are dogs and cats Video: By: Becca White, Brandon Feuerherd, Hannah Smith, and Michael Stitely Similar Diseases:
•Reduction- numbers of animals are minimized
•Replacement- non-animal alternatives are used whenever possible
•Refinement- animals are looked after properly and any pain or distress is minimized The 3 R’s in animal research: - Leukemia: cats and cattle
- Diabetes: Chinese hamsters
- Milk allergy and gallstones: rabbits
- Hepatitis: dogs and horses
- Epilepsy: dogs and gerbils Why Do We Test Animals? * Animals are used to test products such as clothes, cosmetics, perfumes, cleaning products, and medicines.
* Almost every major medical advance has depended on the use of animals at some stage of research, development, or testing. Animal Rights Groups History * Veterinary profession existed throughout a large area of Africa and Asia from at least 2000 BC.
* Ancient Egyptian literature includes monographs on both animal and human diseases.
* William Harvey used animals 400 years ago to discover how blood circulates through the body.
* Animal experimentation became widespread in the 1800’s.
* In the 1950's, Jonas Salk tested over 10,000 animals to develop a vaccine for polio, which was successful. • To advance scientific understanding (To research different diseases.)
• Develop solutions to medical problems
• Protect the safety of people, animals and environment Scenario #1 One of your favorite shampoos is tested on animals. Which do you think is more valuable? The shampoo, or the animal?
Does this change your opinion on animal experimentation?
Are you for or against it? Scenario #2 Suppose one of your relatives has cancer. The only way to cure them, is with different treatments. Before the treatment is given to any patient, it must be tested. These treatments are usually tested on animals. Which is more valuable to you; the life of a relative or the life of a small animal?
Does this change your opinion on animal experimentation? Are you for or against it? * People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA)
* Animal Aid (UK)
* Animal Defense League
* Anonymous for Animal Rights
* Last Chance for Animals (LCA)
* Great Ape Project Bibliography "animal rights." Compton's by Britannica. 01 Aug 2011: n.p. SIRS Discoverer. Web. 07 May 2013.
Bryant, Elizabeth. "EU Parliament Bans Animal Testing in Cosmetics." UPI. 03 Apr 2001: n.p. SIRS Discoverer. Web. 07 May 2013.
Public Opinion on Animal Testing (sidebar)." Issues & Controversies On File: n. pag. Issues & Controversies. Facts On File News Services, 13 Sept. 1996. Web. 7 May 2013. <http://www.2facts.com/article/ib103400>.
"Key Events in the History of Animal Rights (sidebar)." Issues & Controversies. Facts On File News Services, 3 Sept. 2012. Web. 7 May 2013. <http://www.2facts.com/article/ib170331>.
"Genetic Engineering." Issues & Controversies On File: n. pag. Issues & Controversies. Facts On File News Services, 9 Aug. 2002. Web. 7 May 2013. <http://www.2facts.com/article/i0100580>.
"Animal disease." Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Online School Edition.Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., 2013. Web. 2 May 2013.<http://school.eb.com/eb/article-63280>.
Do Animals Have Rights?.” Current Events (Vol. 108, No. 23). 27 Apr 2009: 4+. SIRS Discoverer. Web. 02 May 2013. Bibliography * For every human diseases, it is likely that an identical or similar disease exists in at least one animal species.* "Update: Animal Testing." Issues & Controversies On File: n. pag. Issues & Controversies. Facts On File News Services, 31 Mar. 2006. Web. 2 May 2013.
"Animals Used for Testing and Research." Environment. Robert William Collin. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2008. 19-28. Battleground. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 1 May 2013.
Animal Testing Follow-Up: Technological Advances Could Ultimately Make Animal Testing Unnecessary." Issues & Controversies. Facts On File News Services, 18 June 2012. Web. 2 May 2013. <http://www.2facts.com/article/ib110144>.
Flecknell, Paul. "Animal experimentation." World Book Student. World Book, 2013. Web. 3 May 2013.
Harding, Lauri R. "Animal Experimentation." The Gale Encyclopedia of Psychology. Ed. Bonnie Strickland. 2nd ed. Detroit: Gale, 2001. 35-37. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 3 May 2013.
"Animal Testing." Issues & Controversies On File: n. pag. Issues & Controversies. Facts On File News Services, 1 Sept. 2000. Web. 3 May 2013. <http://www.2facts.com/article/i0103370>. * Many labs burn, shock, torture, and starve animals without pain relief.
* Most animals stay in their cage unless they are being used for testing.
* Stress on animals can cause them to spin in circles, rock back and forth, or even pull out their own hair.
* Mice- inhale toxic fumes, dogs- pesticides, rabbits- corrosive chemicals rubbed in eyes and skin In the Labs: Alternatives? * Other methods include:
- Cell and organ culture
- Tissue culture
- Chemical assay tests
- Cloned human cells
- Tests on humans (Skin patches)
- High-tech equipment
* New computer programs that simulate the dissections can be used in the classroom. Companies that Test on Animals: - Band-Aid - Dove
- Axe - Mr. Clean
- Clorox - Pantene
- Drano - OxiClean
- Tide - Pampers
- Air Wick - Pine-Sol
- Clean & Clear - Vaseline Companies that don't Test on Animals: - Abercrombie & Fitch - Safeway
- Bath & Body Works - Too Faced - Burt’s Bees Cosmetics
- PetGuard - Avon
- Banana Republic - Gap, Inc.
- Revlon - Old Navy
- Food Lion - Aloe Our Opinion Our entire group is against animal testing. We believe that the body of an animal is different from a human's, therefore animal testing is unnecessary and unethical. Your Opinion Now that you know the reason and history of animal experimentation, what is your opinion? Are you for or against it?