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iPads for Educators: What? Why? How?

iPads are invaluable instrutional tools for promoting discovery and understanding in the classrooms. However, before using these devices, teachers need to understand what an iPad is... why they are using it... and how is should be used.

Carrie Thornthwaite

on 16 June 2017

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Transcript of iPads for Educators: What? Why? How?

Why should I use it?
How can I use it?
What is it?
~ new toy or gadget?
~ a mini-computer?
~ something entirely different!?
The success of ANY iPad program demands an understanding by all participants of why the devices are being used.
Before knowing the
, understanding the
is critical!
•1-to-1 Initiatives: Flipped Classroom

•Classroom sets: Discovery Learning

•Small number/classroom: Cooperative
"It's truly magical
and revolutionary
product!" ~ Steve Jobs, January 2010
“Apple's iPad is outpacing traditional PCs in sales to students and schools for the first time ever” (Kerr, 2012)
Does iPad Usage Result in Increased Student Learning?

Early indications on more than half a dozen studies indicate that iPads improve learning. (Baugh, 2012).

8 Studies Show iPads in the Classroom Improve Education (Wainwright, 2013)
in Schools...
The fact remains that some educators retain a total lack of understanding about the incredible potential of this device.
In April 2010, an article in Wired Magazine described the iPad as “a computer that people won’t think of as a computer” (Levy).

“Is the Apple iPad a computer or an entertainment device?”
(Consumer Electronics, Cherry, 2010).

“Is the iPad a 'real' computer, a big portable media player, or something brand new?”
(Ackerman, 2010)

Computers are generally understood to be
electronic devices that process, store, and retrieve data..
.. so does the iPad... does that make it a computer?

Just like a computer, you can print wirelessly and even use an external keyboard. So you can type a 50-page research paper on an iPad...
But that doesn't mean that you should!

Just like a computer, the iPad has an operating system, but
the iPad OS cannot match the capabilities of a computer’s OS.
So, although the iPad has some of the basic features of a computer, it still pales in comparison to today’s models.

Even Steve Jobs acknowledged that the
iPad was NOT a computer, in the fullest sense of the word
(Rosoff, 2011). It was never intended to replace a computer.

Apple has never suggested that the iPad is just another computer,
nor is it just an entertainment device
, despite the fact that it does have features that can be very entertaining.

Similarly, it is
not just “a big portable media player”
, although it does play media quite well.
A mini-computer?
The iPad is quite simply a unique device… a new product.
10 reasons why an iPad should be
an essential tool for teaching &
learning in the classroom....
10. Convenience or Maneuverability
At 1.44 lbs. for the original iPad, 1.0 lbs. for Air or .86 lbs. for the mini, this device is smaller and less than half the weight of the smallest laptop
easier to carry around than a textbook.

“Because the iPad made it easy to carry,
students tend to read and reviewed the materials more frequently than they would otherwise”
(Marmarelli & Ringle, 2011).

Consequently, the potential exists for a
positive correlation between the use of iPads and student learning.
Brief start-up time
. In classrooms, the slow start-up time of most
computers can be distracting and frustrating
... several minutes to boot up.

iPads have
virtually instantaneous start-up
times, so wait time is never an issue.

In addition to that,
crashes are very rare
with iPads, so the need to reboot is seldom an issue.
Teachers can teach!
... rather than dealing with hardware issues.
“it is almost impossible to damage the operating system or get it infected with viruses or malware” (Pawlowski, 2012).
9. Brief start-up time
8. Durability or Robustness
The battery of an iPad can last for
10 hours
before needing to be recharged could last an entire school day and, then even have time left over for after school tutoring sessions!

Compare that to computers! ... “the battery life of laptops can range wildly: We've seen some systems push 7 hours, and others have trouble even clearing an hour and a half.” (Ackerman, 2010).

Recharging iPads can be done every night.
If an iPad could talk, it might well say exactly what Alice said, “
I'm never sure what I'm going to be, from one minute to another

teacher might use the iPad as a
movie player
to show a video on the rule of the Tudors in England.

or ELL teacher might be using the iPad as a
voice recorder
to help students improve their pronunciation.

teacher might be using her iPad like a
document camera or whiteboard
, asking her students to write in the next step in solving a math problem.

A university, a professor could be using the iPad as a
generate a video
for each Education major teaching his or her first class.

For all subjects, the iPad could serve as a
textbook or a journal

immense number of apps
allows for this wide range of activities....

7. Versatility
6. Cost
From its introduction in 2010 through the initiation of the iPad , the
cost of iPads from Apple start at $329.

Schools generally stay with the 16 GB model, which is far
cheaper than computers.
For example, a MacBook Pro at $1,199 (retail) or most PCs that range from $700 to $2,000.

If funds are limited, as they usually are in education, then
purchasing iPads would be a far more frugal investment
, compared to buying other technology devices.
“Why Your
iPad Is Almost Always The Cheapest Way To Get Your Textbooks
”, compared the costs of regular new or used textbooks, rented textbooks, and etextbooks.... eBooks, on the average,
saved $163.88/semester over renting and $355.13 over buying
(Heine, 2012).

primary disadvantage,
so far, is that those etextbooks are much more readily available in some subjects over others and some grade levels over others. Hopefully that will be changing...

Project Tomorrow reports that
27 percent of middle school and 35 percent of high school students use digital textbooks.
On top of that, the Pearson Foundation reports that
58 percent of college students prefer a digital format for textbooks
. (Mcneely, 2013)

In 2013,
56 percent of library media centers
(LMCs) offered ebooks to students and faculty, 16 percent more than in 2012.
Among elementary schools
, the top titles are animals, science/
/technology, and biology in the nonfiction category, with realistic fiction, fantasy, and graphic novels comprising most of the fiction. (Peterson, 2014)

Furthermore, the etextbooks that do exist are
very impressive
with their capabilities of being able to: 1)
directly link to audio and video files
; 2)
easily search
for related information; 3) allow students to more easily and neatly
write notes in the margins and also highlight important areas of the text
; 4) easily
copy and paste text
into note files or for purposes of citation; and 5) easily
share sections with colleagues for discussion purposes.

Potential remains for continued growth in upcoming years.
5. eBooks & eTextbooks
Currently 8 Ways to Show Your iPad on a Projection Screen
4. Projection Capabilities
In 2006, Sir Ken Robinson grabbed international attention with his now famous speech entitled “Do Schools Kill Creativity?” (TEDxTalks, 2007)... In his book,
Out of Our Minds
, Mr. Robinson writes, “
New technologies are revolutionizing the nature of work everywhere… New forms of work rely increasingly on high level of specialist knowledge, and on creativity and innovation” (Robinson, 2011, p.25).

Schools gradually stifle that creativity. After more than a decade of trudging through our schools, the students graduate only to discover that businesses are expecting them to once again be creative.

“According to a new survey of 1,500 chief executives conducted by IBM's Institute for Business Value (IBM), CEOs identify
‘creativity’ as the most important leadership competency for the successful enterprise of the future”
(Businessweek, 2010).

Computerworld posted an article entitled, “Why
the iPad is a creativity machine
”. (Elgan, 2010). The iPad clearly has the ability to nourish student creativity.
3. Creativity

The iPad engages students in ways that no piece of school or classroom technology has ever done
” (Faas, 2012).

“our children have
a dramatic new interest in being at school
, learning from the e-books and apps on the iPads, and utilizing technology to do their assignments” (Blandford, 2011).

classroom management is a non-issue

"The iPad made class more interesting, encouraged exploration of additional topics, provided functions and tools not possible with a textbook and helped them more effectively manage their time
” (Notre Dame, Chapla, 2011).

Students with iPads showed an "
increased engagement and frequentcy of access compared to students using a laptop
." (Abilene Christian University study comparing Blackboard usage, Shepherd & Reeves, 2011).

An “
increased engagement and frequency of access compared to students using a laptop”
(Shepherd & Reeves, 2011).
2. Stimulates Student Engagement - cont.
Who would argue that the
most critical expectation for any teacher
is to maximize the amount of learning taking place in his or her classroom?

Value of that “Ah, ha!” moment... even more so “
That's funny
." [The most exciting phrase to hear... is not "Eureka".. but "That's funny." - Isaac Asimov]

Mark Van Doren (1944), “
The art of teaching is the art of assisting discovery

Students then need to have tools to assist them in the discovery
.... enter the iPad.

Almost immediately after the release of the iPad, researchers developed projects to prove or disprove that iPads could enhance learning.
Many studies still ongoing...
1. Enhances Learning!
Single iPad/classroom: Academic
Before starting a 1-to-1 Initiatives...
“Let me count the ways”
1-to-1 program is the ideal! However, BEFORE initiating, address the following six areas:

! Certainly not a minor detail!

Share the Vision by ALL stakeholders!
A shared vidsion must start with great leadership. Salerno & Vonhof (2011) wrote, “Successful schools will have a senior administrative leader driving this initiative… [he or she] must be a champion for technology and have sufficient knowledge to coordinate an internal and external technological vision”.
The leaders must then share the vision with all key stakeholders. School board members, administrators, teachers, and parents must all be informed and fully understanding of the project. Then representatives from each group should be chosen to help coordinate dissemination of information both prior to and during the initiation of the program.
Sample Information Guide from Monlieu Elementary School, in High Point, N.C.: http://www.gcsnc.com/education/components/scrapbook/default.php?sectiondetailid=328354

3. Systems Set-up, e.g. arranging for a
installed, wireless network with adequate bandwidth... a second router might be considered in order to avoid outages. Qualified technicians should be involved throughout the planning process, in order to assure success of the initiative.

Security and Maintenance
... student owned or school property?

Ongoing training.
.. consider parents also

Welcoming flexibility
- by Everett Dirksen, “I am a man of fixed and unbending principles, the first of which is to be flexible at all times” (Ashworth, 2001, p. 11). Despite an immense amount of time invested in planning, things will inevitably go wrong. An inability to be flexible with certain aspects of a new program can, almost assure failure.
1-to-1 Initiatives allow for Flipped Classrooms - part 2
A flipped classroom
is an instructional strategy that allow a teacher to transform his or her classroom by primarily serving as the “guide on the side”, rather than a “sage on the stage”. Each lesson is initiated outside the classroom with each student working independently.

This strategy can provide a
paperless classroom!

Home assignments can be provided through
Educreations, Prezi, Ask3

Learning Management Systems could be set up through

Create audio files (
Audio Memos
, et al.) or Video files (
FaceTime, Camera, Educretions
, et al.) to enhance instruction.

Files could also be exchanged through
Google Drive

Assessments could be made through

The ultimate goal of flipping the class is to then allow the teacher to spend
quality time in the classroom
going into more depth on each topic and assisting students as they gain greater understanding.
Classroom Set of iPads
Why use?
funds are not available
for 1-to-1
a trial run
before initiating a 1-to-1...

... but beware,
the scenarios are quite different. The way that you use them and the way that you approach them needs to be vastly different. In short, the “
iPad is not designed to be shared
” (Salerno, 2011).

Every time a student saves something to a community iPad, the next user of the iPad will have access to whatever has been saved.

There are some safe ways for transmitting assignments, but each app usually requires different techniques.

Managing a cart of iPads is not trivial
.. use technical support. Someone needs to be responsible for routinely taking the iPads through the processes of both
syncing and recharging.

“Carts that rotate through several classrooms force teachers to take time away from learning, create a nightmare of student accounts, and often focus attention on workflow systems rather than learning….Instead
schools should be allocating them to a few select pilot classrooms
for an entire year.” (Daccord, 2012).

One of the best strategies to use:
discovery learning.
Can be used for
group work or for competitive teams

Almost any lesson plan that incorporates small groups could be enhanced with the use of iPads.

One 3rd grade teacher from Nebraska wrote “The key to getting results from just a few iPads is to create a classroom structure where the teacher can meet with each student in a small group setting every day” (Abeling, 2012)

teacher needs to rotate
, while the students are engaged.

Works great with lessons that use cooperative learning. “The
iPad naturally lends itself to cooperative learning.
Students break into pairs or groups…This greatly enhances their ability to learn” (Stevens, 2011).

Specific apps sometimes lend themselves more easily to cooperative learning... need to set up clear guidelines.

Don't miss the fun & learning with
QR code Scavenger Hunts!
A small number of iPads...
A teacher's single iPad
Thanks for your time & attention!!!!!!
1. Enhances Learning... examples of studies...
Univ. of S. CA followed 122 elementary students... working with the app, Motion Math.
Children’s fractions test scores improved an average of over 15%
2) Children’s understanding of fractions, as well as their liking of fractions, each improved an average of 10%
3) All participants rated Motion Math as fun.
(Riconscente, 2012, p.1)

Houghton Mifflin's a study with middle school students tested the effectiveness of their Algebra app. Students were randomly selected to use the app and then compared to a control group. “The study showed that
78 percent of students who used the app scored “proficient” or “advanced”
on the California Standards Test,
compared to 59 percent of students who used the textbook version”.
The study also indicated that the students showed
an increase in the interest in algebra
(Barseghian, 2012).

A Univ. of Minn. study followed a secondary school, where iPads were given to students for classroom use only. Hwang (2012) reported, “…students were empowered to learn on their own.
Students could shift their role from passive receivers of knowledge to producers of knowledge.”

Isn’t that the way every classroom should be?

Trinity College in Australia followed college students who were issued iPads for use in any way that they found helpful. A comparison of academic achievement found that
“iPad students achieved the highest individual scores” compared to their control group
(glenjennings, 2012).

Obviously, with projection, for
lecture or demonstration
... but don't fall back to a "sage on the stage"

With the projection system set up, a teacher could have apps running that would allow groups of students to participate as
… perhaps for classroom competitions.

Use a
work station
with a designated iPad.

At an elementary school, teachers were polled to learn how they used their own personal iPads in the classroom:
7% projected to a screen, 15% used a doc camera, another 15% “gather around on a carpet or in a large group”, 23% pass it around, and 9% used unspecified other methods.
(Brown, 2012).

If projection capabilities unavailable, the
document camera
is a viable option.

Tips for the One iPad Classroom
” website offers suggestions for sharing iPads in the elementary classroom). Specifically,
14 different techniques
for using a single iPad with young children:
differentiating instruction
improving reading

The site also includes links to
that are available showing classroom rules for using the iPad.
Students could be allowed to use the iPad only until the sand ran through the
However, the teacher could also use a variety of apps as timers, including a basic
(Butkus, 2012).

Academic games
are particularly useful for review sessions on days prior to testing and can be used at all grade levels. Mistakes that students make can show teachers the areas that might need to be further addressed. For example, a quiz could be created through

An iPad!!!
It is...
"It's truly magical
and revolutionary
product!" ~ January 2010
“Apple's iPad is outpacing traditional PCs in sales to students and schools for the first time ever” (Kerr, 2012)
Early indications on more than half a dozen studies indicate that iPads improve learning. (Baugh, 2012).
True Misunderstandings
The fact remains that some educators retain a total lack of understanding about the incredible potential of this device.
In April 2010, an article in Wired Magazine described the iPad as “a computer that people won’t think of as a computer” (Levy).
I can use it...
“Let me count the ways”
~ a totally unique device!!!
- the soul and life of an iPad comes from the apps!!!
- Without well-chosen apps, the device is ineffective!!!
I should use it...
very valid reasons
The most important of which is that it has been shown over & over that iPads
enhances the learning
capabilities of students!!!
Every stakeholder needs to have a thorough understanding of these reasons
the students are allowed access.
10 reasons why an iPad should be
an essential tool for teaching &
learning in the classroom....
in any classroom...
whether there is 1 iPad, as small number, a classroom set, or a 1:1 program!
In every classroom, an
is as
as a computer and a projector!

"I was so excited to get an iPad recently. I went out and bought an external keyboard for it right away. Since then I've been a bit frustrated. I thought I could get rid of my laptop computer and have a lighter device to carry around. However, the iPad is just not doing some of the things that I need to do."
~ teacher, January 2014
Carrie Thornthwaite
Lipscomb University Nashville, TN

On a student assignment... to reflect about technology use in the classroom...
March 2014

And now
the apps!
2. Stimulates Student Engagement
In 2015, the App Store had over 80,000 education apps!
So, would you say students are engaged here?
Or perhaps are they better engaged here?
Full transcript